Placental abruption: a persisting killer

Shakuntala Amirchand Chhabra, V. Pandit, M. Gosavi

Abstract


Background: Placental abruption, common disorder in obstetric practice, enigma too, is uniquely fraught with dangers to mother baby. Objectives of study were to study trends of placental abruption, risk factors, management strategies to learn more for reduction in morbidity-mortality of mother-baby, even with low resources, also get insight for future research.  

Methods: Records of cases of placental abruption managed over 27 years (between 1985 to 2011) were divided into three yearly blocks, A to I and analysed. Details  including operative procedures like dilatation-curettage, Caesarean Section (CS) or Ante-Partum Haemorrhage (APH) in past, disorders like chronic hypertension, threatened abortion, pregnancy specific hypertension, diabetes, anaemia in index pregnancy, management done maternal-neonatal outcome were analysed using stata 6 software.

Results: There were 66,459 births during analysis period with 667 cases of placental abruption, 1% births, increasing trends from, 0.73% between 1985-1987 to, 1.11% in 2009-2011. In these 667 cases of placental abruption, 211 (32.5%) perinatal deaths occurred. Ratio of perinatal deaths due to placental abruption to overall perinatal deaths increased from 2.12% (8 cases) between 1985-1987 (Block A) to 5.12% (37 cases) between 2009-2011 (Block I). Case fatality in cases of placental abruption has been fluctuating between 3 to 5% till 2004, contributing to around 12-15%, maternal mortality, with no fatality in last 7 years.

Conclusions: Cases of placental abruption have been increasing with no obvious reason. In recent past maternal deaths could be prevented but perinatal deaths, have been persisting actually more in last decade.


Keywords


Placental Abruption, Perinatal deaths, Maternal deaths

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References


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