Outcome of instrumental vaginal delivery in university of Abuja teaching hospital: a five-year review


  • Caroline T. Henderson Jumbo Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Abuja Teaching Hospital, Abuja, Nigeria
  • Malachy E. Ayogu Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Abuja Teaching Hospital, Abuja, Nigeria
  • Habiba I. Abdullahi Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Abuja Teaching Hospital, Abuja, Nigeria




Vacuum and forceps deliveries, Complications, Abuja, Nigeria


Background: Most women will achieve spontaneous vaginal delivery; however, a few will need assistance in form of Instrumental vaginal delivery (IVD). These are employed to shorten the second stage on labour and to minimize the incidence of cesarean section. The aim of the study was to determine the prevalence and outcomes of instrumental vaginal delivery at the University of Abuja teaching hospital.

Methods: This was a retrospective study of women who had instrumental vaginal delivery over a 5-year period at the University of Abuja teaching hospital. Data on socio-demographic variables, type of instrumental delivery performed, Apgar scores of neonates delivered, indications and complication were obtained from the labour ward registers and case notes of patients and entered into a proforma and analysed using SPSS software for Windows version 23.

Results: Instrumental vaginal delivery (IVD) rate performed for both Vacuum or Forceps) was 0.99%, Forceps delivery was 0.30% and vacuum accounted for 0.69% of all deliveries. The mean maternal age was 27.53±5.5 years and 51 (54.8%) of the parturient were primigravidae, 55 (59.1%) were booked patients.  Delayed second stage of labour (38.7%) was the most common indications for IVD. Maternal complications noted were genital tract laceration 17 (18.3%) and primary post-partum haemorrhage 10 (10.8%). The mean APGAR scores was 6 and 8 in the first and fifth minutes respectively, live births were 85 (91.4%), stillbirths were 7 (7.5%) and one early neonatal death was recorded (1.1%) due to asphyxia as a result of difficult forceps delivery.

Conclusions: The IVD rate at UATH is low with good maternal and fetal outcome and preference for vacuum delivery.


Anozie O, Osaheni L, Onu F, Onoh R, Ogah E, Eze J, et al. Declining Rate of Operative Vaginal Deliveries in Nigeria. Open J of Obst and Gynecol. 2018;8:175-84.

Garba JA, Burodo AT, Saidu AD, Sulaiman B, Umar AG, Ibrahim R, et al. Instrumental vaginal delivery in Usmanu Danfodiyo University Teaching Hospital, Sokoto: A ten-year review. Trop J Obstet Gynaecol. 2018;35(2):123-7.

Egbodo CO, Edugbe AE, Akunaeziri AU, Ayuba C, Oga EO, Shambe HI, et al. Instrumental Vaginal Delivery at Jos University Teaching Hospital: Forceps Versus Vacuum Extraction, a Four Year Retrospective Review. Res in Obst and Gynecol. 2018;6(3):47-51.

Kadas A, Aliyu L, Hauwa M. Instrumental vaginal delivery in bauchi, northeast Nigeria. J West Afr Coll Surg. 2011;1(4):18-27.

Ochejele S, Musa J, Eka PO, Attah DI, Ameh T, Daru PH, et al. Trends and operators of instrumental vaginal deliveries in Jos, Nigeria: A 7-year study (1997–2003). Trop J Obstet Gynaecol. 2018;35:79-83.

Ali UA, Norwitz ER. Vacuum-assisted vaginal delivery. Rev Obstet Gynecol. 2009;2(1):5-17.

Laura W, Jean CJ, Andrew R, France D. Maternal mortality update: a focus on emergency obstetric care. UNFPA. 2002;2.

Bailey PE. The disappearing art of instrumental delivery: time to reverse the trend. Int J Gynaecol Obstet. 2005;91(1):89-96.

Clark SL, Belfort MA, Hankins GD, Meyers JA, Houser FM. Variation in the rates of operative delivery in the United States. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2007;196(6):526.

Aimakhu CO, Olayemi O, Iwe CA, Oluyemi FA, Ojoko IE, Shoretire KA, et al. Current causes and management of violence against women in Nigeria. J Obstet Gynaecol. 2004;24(1):58-63.

Odukogbe AA, Adebamowo CA, Ola B, Olayemi O, Oladokun A, Adewole IF, et al. Ovarian cancer in Ibadan: characteristics and management. J Obstet Gynaecol. 2004;24(3):294-7.

Adaji SE, Shittu SO, Sule ST. Operative vaginal deliveries in Zaria, Nigeria. Ann Afr Med. 2009;8(2):95-9.

Aimakhu CO, Olayemi O, Enabor OO, Oluyemi FA, Aimakhu VE. Forceps delivery at the University College Hospital, Ibadan, Nigeria. West Afr J Med. 2003;22(3):222-4.

Chukudebelu WO, Ozumba BC. Maternal mortality at the University of Nigeria Teaching Hospital, Enugu: a 10-year survey. Trop J Obstet Gynaecol. 1988;1(1):23-6.

Ogunniyi SO, Sunusi YO. Instrumental vaginal delivery in IIe-ife and IIesha, Nigeria. Nig J Med. 1988;7(3):105-8.

UNICEF, WHO, UNFPA. Guidelines for monitoring the availability and use of obstetric services. New York, 1997.

Eogan M, Herlihy C. Safe use and enduring value of operative vaginal delivery. The Jof Family Practice. 2006;18(6):18-21.

National services Scotland. Births in Scottish Hospitals, 2017.

Aliya I, Aisha HK, Javaria NM. Vacuum and Forceps Deliveries; Comparison of Maternal and Neonatal complications. Professional Med J. 2008;15 (1):87-90.

Anate M. Instrumental (operative) vaginal deliveries: vacuum extraction compared with forceps delivery at Ilorin University Teaching Hospital, Nigeria. West Afr J Med. 1991;10(2):127-36.

Daru PH, Egbodo C, Suleiman M, Shambe IH, Magaji AF, Ochejele S. A decade of instrumental vaginal deliveries in Jos University Teaching Hospital, North Central Nigeria. Trop J Obstet Gynaecol. 2018;35:113-7.

Thomas J, Paranjothy S. The National Sentinel Caesarean Section Audit Report. RCOG Clinical Effectiveness Support Unit. Ney York, RCOG Press; 2001.

Information and Statistics Division. Scottish Health Statistics, 2002. Available at: https://www.isdscotland.org/HealthTopics/Maternity-and-Births/Births/. Accessed on 3 March 2021.

Martin JA, Hamilton BE, Sutton PD, Ventura SJ, Menacker F, et al. Births: final data for 2005. Natl Vital Stat Rep. 2007;56(6):1-103.

Clark SL, Belfort MA, Hankins GD, Meyers JA, Houser FM. Variation in the rates of operative delivery in the United States. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2007;196(6):526.

Cheng YW, Hopkins LM, Caughey AB. How long is too long: Does a prolonged second stage of labor in nulliparous women affect maternal and neonatal outcomes? Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2004;191(3):933-8.






Original Research Articles