Published: 2021-05-27

Advanced leiomyosarcoma of the uterus: a case report and literature review

Tawaqualit A. Ottun, Taiwo O. Kuye, Olukayode A. Adegboyega, Folasade D. H. Olalere, Omobolanle Akinbami, Oladunni Yusuf Oduyoye, Morenikeji M. Salami, Kabiru Rabiu, Adeniyi A. Adewunmi


Uterine leiomyosarcoma is a rare malignancy accounting for 1-2% of uterine malignancies with an annual incidence of 0.5-7 per 100,000 women. It occurs mostly between the 5th to 7th decades of life hence found more among postmenopausal women.  The aetiology is mostly unknown however, in 0.2% of cases, it originates from sarcomatous degeneration in a pre-existing benign uterine fibroid. Leiomyosarcoma can be mistaken for uterine leiomyoma also known as the uterine fibroid.  It is an aggressive tumour that has a poor prognosis, with or without treatment. This case report aimed to report and discuss the occurrence of leiomyosarcoma as a differential diagnosis of abnormal uterine bleeding in this environment among other conditions. This will bring to the fore awareness among gynaecologists, pathologists, radiologists and oncologists that leiomyosarcoma of the uterus, though rare, should be considered in cases of menorrhagia with suspected uterine fibroid to avoid mistaking it for a diagnosis of uterine fibroid/leiomyoma. It is, therefore, imperative to consider leiomyosarcoma in a pre-menopausal and perimenopausal women diagnosed of abnormal uterine bleeding with symptomatic uterine fibroid. MRI serves as a good tool in differentiating the two pathologies.



Leiomyosarcoma, Leiomyoma, Uterine fibroid, Leiomyoma, Menorrhagia, Radiotherapy, Chemotherapy

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