To study the role of visual inspection of cervix with acetic acid (VIA) in cervical cancer screening

Sunita Goyal, Pooja Tandon, Nidhi Bhutani, Bhupinder K. Gill


Background: Objectives of current study were to evaluate visual inspection of cervix with acetic acid in picking up abnormal cervix and to correlate the findings of VIA with Pap smear, colposcopy and cervical biopsy.

Methods: Study was conducted on 300 sexually active women attending the gynaecological OPD at Dayanand medical college and hospital, Ludhiana. All patients underwent VIA & Pap smear screening and if either of the two was abnormal, colposcopy was done & colposcopic guided cervical biopsy was taken if indicated. Total 105 colposcopies were done. Cervical biopsy was taken in 87 cases and the results were compared and statistically analysed.

Results: The sensitivity of VIA was 86% and specificity 40.50%. No case was missed by VIA when cut off was taken as moderate dysplasia or higher lesions on biopsy.

Conclusions: VIA is a sensitive, practical and a low cost affair in cervical cancer screening.


Cervical biopsy, Cervical cytology, Colposcopy, VIA

Full Text:



Pandey K, Bhagoliwal A. Cancer cervix: need for mass surveillance program specially in rural areas. J Obstete Gynaecol India. 2005;55(5):436-9.

Ahmad SS, Batra S, Gandhi G, Zutshi NV. Comparison of methods used for screening of cervical preinvasive lesions. Obstet Gynaecol India. 2003;53(1):70-1.

Londhe M, George Susan S, Seshadri L. Detaection of CIN by naked eye visualization after application of acetic acid. Indian J Cancer. 1997 Jun;34:88-91.

Crothers BA. The Bethesda system 2001: update on terminology and application. Clin Obstet Gynaecol. 2005;48(1):98-107.

Walker P, Palo GD, Campion M, Jakob C, Roy M. International terminology of colposcopy: an updated report from the international federation for cervical pathology and colposcopy. Obstet Gynaecol. 2003;101(1):175-7.

Gehlot M, Hooja N, Lakhiwal MK. Correlation between colposcopy, cytology and histology in cervical lesions. J Obstet Gynaecol India. 2001;51(5):180-3.

Luthra UK, Prabhakar AK, Seth P, Aggarwal SS, Murthy NS, Bhatnagar P, et al. Natural history of precancerous and early cancerous lesions of the uterine cervix. Acta Cytol. 1987;31(3):226-34.

Vander Graff, Voojis GP. False negative rates in cervical cytology. J Clin Pathol.1987;40:438-42.

Belinson JL, Pretorius RG, Zhang WH, Wu LY, Qiao YL, Elson P. Cervical cancer screening by simple visual inspection after acetic acid. Obstet & Gynaecol. 2001;98:441-4.

Kushtagi P, Rao K, Rao RV. Downstaging of carcinoma of uterine cervix in South Indian Women on Westcost. J Obstet Gynaecol India. 1995;45:666-70.

Shankaranarayanan R, Wesley R, Somanathan T, Dhakad N, Shyamalakumary B, Amma NS, et al. Visual inspection of uterine cervix after the application of acetic acid in the detection of cervical carcinoma and its precursors. Cancer. 1998;83:2150-6.