Published: 2021-10-27

A case of thoraco-omphalopagus conjoined twins with intrauterine death

Rosy Khanam, Shabir Ahmed Choudhury


Conjoined twins or Siamese twins are identical twins that are joined in utero. The original Siamese twins were born in Siam (now Thailand) in 1811. They were males and lived for about 62 years. Incidence being 1 in 49,000 births to 1 in 1,89,000 births, this phenomenon is very rare. Approximate half are stillborn and one- third die within 24 hours of birth. Five types of conjoint twins are classically described, thoracopagus, omphalopagus, pygopagus, ischiopagus and craniopagus. With a reported incidence of 74-75% of all conjoint twins, Thoracopagus is the most common type. Omphalopagus with an incidence of 0.5% is the least common. Here we are reporting a case of thoraco-omphalopagus twin pregnancy with intra uterine death delivered by hysterotomy.

Full Text:



Osmanağaoğlu MA, Aran T, Süleyman G, Kart C, Ozgür O, Bozkaya H. Thoracopagus conjoined twins: a case report. Obstet Gynecol. 2011;2011:238360..

Sharma UK, Dangol A, Chawla CD, Shretha CD. Antenatal detection of conjoined twin. J Nepal Med Assoc. 2007;46:133-5.

Ratner AN, Terrone D, Cosgrove FJ. Thoracopagus conjoined twins. J Diagn Med Sonog. 2006;22:53-5.

Conjoined Twins Facts. University of Maryland Medical Center. 2012.

Carnevale FC, Marcus VB, Affonso BB, Pinto RP, Uenis T, João GM. Importance of angiographic study in preoperative planning of conjoined twins: case report. Clinics. 2006;61(2):167-70.

Spencer R. Anatomic description of conjoined twins: A plea for standardized terminology. J Pediatr Surg. 1996;3:941-4.

O’Neill JA, Rowe MI, Grosfeld JL, Fonkalsrud EW, Coran AG. Conjoined Twins: in Pediatric Surgery. Mosby. 2006;9:2080.

Schnaufer L. Conjoined twins,” in Swenson's Pediatric Surgery. Raffensperger JG Ed. Appleton Century-Crofts, New York, NY, USA, 4th edition, 1980;910-20.

Abossolo T, Dancoisne P, Tuaillon J, Orvain E, Sommer JC, Rivière JP. Early prenatal diagnosis of asymmetric cephalothoracopagus twins. J gynécol, obstétri boil reproduct. 1994;23(1):79-84.

Stone JL, Goodrich JT. The craniopagus malformation: classification and implications for surgical separation. Brain. 2006;129(5):1084-95.

Kamak I, Ciftei AO, Buyukpcmukcu N. Epigastric Heteropagus: a case report with review of the literature. Eur J Pediatr Surg. 1999;9(5):347-50.

Groner JI, Teske DW, Teich S. Dicephalus dipus dibrachius: an unusual case of conjoined twins. J. Pediatr Surg. 1996;31(12):698-700.

Al Rabeeah A. Conjoined Twins-past, present and future. J. Pediatr Surg. 2006;41(5):1000-4.

Shapiro E, Fir WR, Ternberg JL, Siegel MJ, Bell MJ, Manley CB. Ischiopagus tetrapus twins: Urological aspects of separation and 10 years follow up. J Urol. 1991;145:120-5.

Dorig AT. Successful separation of ischiopagus tripus conjoined twins with one twin suffering from brain damage. J PeSiatr Surg. 1993;28:965-8.

Stauffer JG. Conjoined twins. In Neo natal Surgery, 3rd edn. Eds Lister J, Irving IM, London, Butterworths. 1990;153-62.

Sabih D, Ahmad E, Sabih A, Sabih Q. Ultrasound diagnosis of cephalopagus conjoined twin pregnancy at 29 weeks. Biomed Imaging Interv J. 2010;6(4):e38.