Hysterectomy for primary gynaecological malignancies in a non-cancer centre: prevalence, indications and surgical outcomes at a tertiary hospital in Port-Harcourt, Nigeria: a six-year review
Keywords:Gynaecological malignancies, Hysterectomy, Endometrial cancer, Cervical cancer, Ovarian cancer, Choriocarcinoma
Background: Gynaecological malignancies continue to be an important public health problem globally and are among the leading causes of morbidity and cancer-related deaths worldwide. In developing countries there is poor awareness and late presentation, and specialized cancer treatment centers are few, necessitating the gynaecologists at the tertiary hospitals to render surgical care for some cancer patients. The objective of the study was to determine the prevalence, indications, and surgical outcome of hysterectomy for primary gynaecological malignancies and assess the associated factors.
Methods: This was a retrospective review of hysterectomies performed between March 2015 and February 2021. Data were obtained from operating theater and gynaecological ward records. Information on age, parity, indication, length of surgery, blood loss and any blood transfusion, post-operative complication, and mortality, were extracted. Data were analyzed using Statistical package for social sciences (SPSS) version 20.
Results: Of 1240 major gynaecological surgeries, 26 were hysterectomies for malignant conditions giving a prevalence of 2.1%. Commonest indication was Endometrial cancer 16 (61.5%), followed by cervical cancer 3 (11.5%) and ovarian malignancy 3 (11.5%). There was a significant relationship between age (p=0.027) with the indications for hysterectomy. Commonest complication was anaemia 6 (23.1%) and wound sepsis 5 (19.2%). Anaemia was significantly associated with duration of surgery (p=0.004) and estimated blood loss (p=0.005).
Conclusions: The prevalence of 2.1% for a non-cancer center is a fair contribution to efforts at caring for cancer patients. All surgeries were simple TAH±BSO and more than half were done for endometrial cancer. Further training of cancer surgeons and establishment of a Cancer Centre in the State is needed.
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