DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.18203/2320-1770.ijrcog20220176

A survey on the impact of COVID-19 infection on menstrual cycle following second wave of COVID infection in a tertiary care centre in Mumbai

Niranjan N. Chavan, Manan Murlidhar Boob, Sonam Simpatwar, Ashwini Sakhalkar, Neetika N. Chavan

Abstract


Background: The COVID-19 pandemic has led to poor mental health measures, with emerging evidence suggesting gender differences with poorer outcomes in women. It has also introduced many acute stressors in life of many women and thus, led to worse outcomes. This may have unintended consequences for women’s overall health and well-being, including disruptions to reproductive function as elevated stress is often associated with menstrual cycle irregularities. The objective of this study was to determine if and how the COVID-19 infection and its related stressors have impacted women’s menstrual cyclicity.

Methods: An online survey was designed to capture self-reported information on menstrual cycle changes was distributed between April and September 2021. A total of 155 women who met stringent inclusion and exclusion criteria and completed the survey.

Results: Of the 155 respondents, more than half (78%) reported changes in their menstrual cycles. These included changes in menstrual cycle length, the duration of menses, or changes in premenstrual symptoms.

Conclusions: By uncovering a trend in increased menstrual cycle irregularities during the second wave of the COVID-19 pandemic, this study contributes to our understanding of the implications that the pandemic may have on women’s reproductive health.

 


Keywords


Menstrual cycle, COVID-19, Reproductive health

Full Text:

PDF

References


Coronaviridae study group of the international committee on taxonomy of viruses. The species severe acute respiratory syndrome-related coronavirus: Classifying 2019-ncov and naming it sars-cov-2. Nat Microbiol. 2020;5:536-44.

WHO director-general’s opening remarks at the media briefing on COVID-19-11 march 2020. Available at: https://www.who.int/director-general/ speeches/detail/who-director-general-s-opening-remarks-at- the-media-briefing-on-COVID-19-11-march-2020. Accessed on 1 July 2020.

Moreland A, Herlihy C, Tynan MA. Timing of state and territorial COVID-19 stay-at-home orders and changes in population movement-United States, March 1-May 31, 2020. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2020;69:1198-203.

WHO coronavirus disease (COVID-19) dashboard. Available at: https://covid19.who.int. Published 2021. Accessed on 20 November 2020.

Marroquin B, Vine V, Morgan R. Mental health during the COVID-19 pandemic: Effects of stay-at-home policies, social distancing behavior, and social resources. Psychiatry Res. 2020;293:113419.

Tull MT, Edmonds KA, Scamaldo KM, Richmond JR, Rose JP, Gratz KL. Psychological outcomes associated with stay-at-home orders and the perceived impact of COVID-19 on daily life. Psychiatry Res. 2020;289:113098.

Salari N, Hosseinian-Far A, Jalali R. Prevalence of stress, anxiety, depression among the general population during the COVID-19 pandemic: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Global Health. 2020;16:57.

Hodgson SH, Mansatta K, Mallett G, Harris V, Emary KRW, Pollard AJ. What defines an efficacious COVID-19 vaccine? A review of the challenges assessing the clinical efficacy of vaccines against SARS-CoV-2. Lancet Infect Dis. 2021;21(2): e26-35.

Ozimek N, Velez K, Anvari H, Butler L, Goldman KN, Woitowich NC. Impact of stress on menstrual cyclicity during the COVID-19 pandemic: a survey study. J Women’s Heal. 2021;2(5):1-7.

Takmaz T, Gundogmus I, Okten SB, Gunduz A. The impact of COVID-19-related mental health issues on menstrual cycle characteristics of female healthcare providers. J Obstet Gynaecol Res. 2021;47(9):3241-9.

Demir O, Sal H, Comba C. Triangle of COVID, anxiety and menstrual cycle. J Obstet Gynaecol (Lahore). 2021;41(8):1257-61.

Male V. Menstrual changes after COVID-19 vaccination. BMJ. 2021;374:1-2.

Reese MA, Usta J, Gupta J, Ettinger AS. Assessment of reproductive health and violence against women among displaced Syrians in Lebanon. BMC Womens Health. 2014;14:25.

Li XH, Qin L, Hu H. Influence of the wenchuan earthquake on self-reported irregular menstrual cycles in surviving women. Gynecol Endocrinol. 2011;27:706-10.

Hannoun AB, Nassar AH, Usta IM, Zreik TG, Abu Musa AA. Effect of war on the menstrual cycle. Obstet Gynecol. 2007;109:929-32.

Almeida M, Shrestha AD, Stojanac D, Miller LJ. The impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on women’s mental health. Arch Womens Ment Health. 2020; 23:741-8.

Ozimek N, Velez K, Anvari H, Butler L, Goldman KN, Woitowich NC. Impact of stress on menstrual cyclicity during the COVID-19 pandemic: a survey study. J Women’s Heal. 2021;5(3):1-7.