Published: 2022-01-28

A decade study of the incidence and clinical analysis of ectopic pregnancy at a tertiary hospital in Eastern Nigeria

Jemima A. Chukwu, Ambrose E. Agulanna, Izuchukwu A. Okafor, Agnes A. Nwakanma, Blessing C. O. Osuji


Background: Ectopic pregnancy (EP), a condition where a fertilized egg grows outside a woman’s uterus, is a fertility- and life-threatening gynecological condition. This study aimed at determining the incidence of EP, clinical presentation, gestational age at presentation, risk factors and treatment modalities.

Methods: This study was conducted at St. Charles Borromeo specialist hospital, Onitsha, Nigeria (January 2009 to December 2018). Information were obtained from the hospital’s medical records as retrieved from various wards. Data were analyzed using IBM SPSS, version 23, then presented as percentage in tables and figure.

Results: Out of 13,402 pregnancies recorded in this study, 119 were EPs giving an incidence of 0.89%. 105 case notes were included in this study since they met the inclusion criteria. Majority of the women belonged to the age group of 26-30 years. Patients with EP presented more between 7-8 weeks of gestational age (40%), though 7.6% were unsure of their last menstrual period. 80 EP cases (76.2%) were ruptured while 25 (23.8%) were unruptured. The ectopic gestation occurred most at the ampulla (51.4%) and more at the right side (66.6%) than the left (33.4%). Pelvic inflammatory disease (30.4%) followed by prior abortion (20.0%) were major predisposing risk factors. The most common clinical presentations were abdominal pain (92.38%), amenorrhea (57.14%) and vaginal bleeding (51.42%). 85.7% had salpingectomy, 9.5% were medically managed.

Conclusions: EP remains a major gynecological emergency. Diagnosis before rupture could offer an opportunity for a successful medical management, thereby; minimizing morbidity and mortality.


Ectopic pregnancy, Amenorrhea, Salpingectomy, Gestational age

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