Menstruation and related disorders in Indian adolescent girls: an observational study

Varsha N. Patil, Dipika T. Nannaware


Background: Menstrual disorders are a common presentation and leading reasons for the physician office visits by adolescents. With this preview, we have made an attempt to evaluate the current changes in the age of menarche, menstruation patterns, the incidence of common menstrual disorders and their etiologies. Aims and objectives of the current study was to evaluate the menstrual disorders, their etiology and treatment modalities in adolescents in tertiary health care setup.

Methods: An observational study was carried out on female patients in adolescent age group attending OPD of obstetrics and gynecology, Grant Government Medical College, Mumbai, India. The selected women were explained about the protocol, purpose of the study and were requested to complete the questionnaires to elicit information relating to demographic features, menarche age, and menstrual characteristics. Results were tabulated and analyzed.

Results: A total number of 100 cases were included in this study, among them majority were in 16-19 years age group (64%), 79% of the study population belong to the lower class. It was observed that 55% study subject had dysmenorrhoea, 65% had irregular menses, 52% oligomenorrhoea, 13% polymenorrhoea, 28% had menorrhagia, 2% amenorrhea, 10% with PCOS and 2% with endometriosis, 4% with hypothyroidism, 4% with hyperprolactinemia. Most of the study subject responded well to analgesics and hormonal therapy.

Conclusions: Menstrual irregularity needs to be evaluated with utmost sensitivity and treated promptly. Lack of sufficient knowledge, awareness regarding menstruation among adolescent girls and social embarrassment should be tackled with education.


Adolescence, Menstruation, Menstrual disorders

Full Text:



Hanson M, Gluckman P. Evolution: development and timing of puberty. Trends Endocrinol Metab. 2006; 17(1):7-12.

Kaplowitz P. Pubertal development in girls: Secular trends. Curr Opin Obstet Gynecol. 2006;18:487-91.

Abioye-Kuteyi EA, Ojofeitimi EO, Aina OI, Kio F, Aluko Y, Mosuro O, et al. The influence of socioeconomic and nutritional status on menarche in Nigerian school girls. Nutr Health. 1997;11:185-95.

Diaz A, Laufer MR, Breech LL. Menstruation in girls and adolescents: Using the menstrual cycle as a vital sign. Pediatrics. 2006;118:2245-50.

Tanner JM. Growth at adolescence. London: Blackwell Scientific; 1962.

Karapanou O, Papadimitriou A. Determinants of menarche. Reprod Biol Endocrinol. 2010;8:110-5.

Slap GB. Menstrual disorders in adolescence. Best Pract Res Clin Obstet Gynaecol. 2003;17(1):75-92.

Thomas F, Renaud F, Benefice E, de MeeĆ¼s T, Guegan JF. International variability of ages at menarche and menopause: Patterns and main determinants. Hum Biol. 2001;73:271-90

Adams HPJ. Menstruation in young girls: A clinical perspective. Obstet Gynecol. 2002;99:655-62.

Lee LK, Chen PC, Lee KK, Kaur J. Menstruation among adolescent girls in Malaysia: A cross-sectional school survey. Singapore Med J. 2006;47:869-74

Flug D, Largo RH, Prader A: Menstrual patterns in adolescent Swiss girls: a longitudinal study. Ann Hum Biol. 1984;11(6):495-508.

ACOG Committee on Adolescent Health Care. Menstruation in girls and adolescents using the menstrual cycle as a vital sign. Obstet Gynecol. 2006; 108(5):1323-8.

Fraser IS, Critchley HO, Munro MG, Broder M. Can we achieve international agreement on terminologies and definitions used to describe abnormalities of menstrual bleeding?. Hum Reprod. 2007;22(3):635-43.

Singh A, Kiran D, Singh H, Nel B, Singh P, Tiwari P. Prevalence and severity of dysmenorrhea: a problem related to menstruation, among first and second year female medical students. Indian J Physiol Pharmacol. 2008;52(4):389-97.

Apter D, Viinikka L, Vihko R. Hormonal pattern of adolescent menstrual cycles. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 1978;47(5):944-54.

Chan SS, Yiu KW, Yuen PM, Sahota DS, Chung TK. Menstrual problems and health-seeking behaviour in Hong Kong Chinese girls. Hong Kong Med J. 2009; 15(1):18-23.

Treloar AE, Boynton RE, Behn BG, Brown BW. Variation of the human menstrual cycle through reproductive life. Int J Fertil. 1967;12(1):77-126.

Vollman RF. The menstrual cycle. Major Probl Obstet Gynecol. 1977;7:1-19.

Rigon F, Bianchin L, Bernasconi S, Bona G, Bozzola M, Buzi F, et al. Update on age at menarche in Italy: toward the leveling off of the secular trend. J Adolesc Health. 2010;46(3):238-44.

Flug D, Largo RH, Proder TO. Menstrual patterns in adolescent swiss girls: a longitudinal study. Ann Hum Biol. 1984;11:495-508.

Provisional population totals: India. Available at: ttps:// Accessed on 20 November 2021.