DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.18203/2320-1770.ijrcog20221667

Incidence of congenital anomalies in Navodaya Medical College

Rita D., Baitinti Srividya, Geeta B. R.

Abstract


Background: Congenital anomalies are defined as structural or functional anomalies including metabolic disorders, that occur during intrauterine life and can be identified antenatally, at birth or later in life. It accounts for 11% of neonatal deaths globally and accounts for 8–18% of perinatal deaths and 10–15% of neonatal deaths in India. Aims and objectives of the research were to study incidence and risk factors associated with congenital anomalies in Navodaya Medical College.

Methods: The clinical study was done on 3008 patients over 1 year at Navodaya Medical College Hospital and Research Centre Thorough history, antenatal ultrasound, blood tests, new born babies were examined thoroughly by the paediatrician to detect the congenital malformation. If any internal congenital malformation were suspected further investigation like ultrasonography (USG), echocardiography (ECHO), X-ray, computed tomography (CT), and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) were done.

Results: Out of 3008 cases, 40 babies had congenital anomalies, incidence is 1.3%, most commonly involved system is musculoskeletal system followed by cardiovascular system. Major risk factors associated are extremes of age, parity, lack of ante natal check-ups, no intake of folic acid, maternal diabetes mellitus.

Conclusions: Congenital malformations though cannot be prevented totally but can be minimised and if detected early which reduces mental agony in mother and family. Prenatal counselling, periconceptional folate, anomaly scan, prenatal diagnosis reduces the incidence of neonatal and infant morbidity and mortalities in India.


Keywords


Congenital anomalies, Anomaly scan, Preconceptional counselling, Infant mortality

Full Text:

PDF

References


Romero R, Kalache KD, Kada N. Timing the delivery of the preterm severely growth restricted fetus: venous Doppler, cardiotocography on the biophysical profile? Ultrasound Obstet Gynacol. 2002;19:118-21.

Giles WB, Trudringer BJ, Baird PJ. Fetal Umbilical flow velocity wave form and placental resistance pathological co-relation. Br J Obstet Gynacol. 1985;92:31-8.

Mendez MA, Gayta MV, Flores R. Doppler ultrasound evaluation in preeclampsia. BMC Res Notes. 2013;19:477.

Gramellini D, Folli MC, Raboni S, Vadora E, Merialdi A. Cerebral-umbilical Doppler ratio as a predictor of adverse perinatal outcome. Obstet Gynecol. 1992;79(3):416-20.

Bano S, Chaudhary V, Pande S, Mehta VC, Sharma AK. Colour Doppler evaluation of cerebral umbilical pubatility ratio and its usefulness in the diagnosis of intrauterine growth restriction and prediction of adverse perinatal outcome. Indian J Radiol Imaging. 2010;20(1):20-5.

Mari G, Hanif F, Kruger M, Cosmi E, Forgas SJ, Treadwell MC. Middle cerebral artery peak systolic velocity a new Doppler parameter in the assessment of growth restricted fetus. Ultrasound Obstet Gynacol. 2007;29(3):310-6.

Schenone MH, Mari G. The MCA Doppler and its role in the evaluation of fetal anemia and fetal growth restriction. Clin Perinatal. 2011;38(1):83-102.

Hecher K, Campbell S, Doyle P, Harrington K, Nicoladies K. Asessment of fetal compromise by Doppler ultrasound investigation of the fetal circulation. Circulation. 1995;91:129-38.

Baschat AA, Gembruch U, Weiner CP, Harman CR. Qualitative venous Doppler waveforms analysis improves prediction of critical perinatal outcome in premature growth restricted foetuses. Ultrasound Obstet Gynacol. 2003;22:240-5.

Brown MA, Lindheimer MD, Swiet M, Assche VA, Moutquin JM. The classification and diagnosis of the hypertensive disorders of pregnancy: statement from the international society for the study of hypertension in pregnancy (ISSHP). Hypertens Pregnancy. 2001;20:19-24.

Kurmanavicius J, Florio I, Wisser J, Hebisch G, Zimmermann R, Muller R et al. Refence resistance indices of the umbilical, fetal middle cerebral and uterine arteries at 24-42 weeks of gestation. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol. 1997;10:112-20.

Ozeren M, Dinc H, Ekmen U, Senekayli C, Aydemir V. Umbilical and middle cerebral artery Doppler indices in patients with preeclampsia. Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol. 1999;82:11-6.

Yoon BH, Lee CM, Kim SW. An abnormal umbilical artery waveform: A strong and independent predictor of adverse perinatal outcome in patients with preeclampsia. Am J Obs Gyn. 1994;171:713-21.