Etiology of male infertility: a review


  • Ayesha Badar Department of Zoology, Centre for Advanced Studies, University of Rajasthan, Jaipur, Rajasthan, India
  • Barkha Khilwani Department of Zoology, Centre for Advanced Studies, University of Rajasthan, Jaipur, Rajasthan, India
  • Nirmal K. Lohiya Department of Zoology, Centre for Advanced Studies, University of Rajasthan, Jaipur, Rajasthan, India
  • Abdul S. Ansari Department of Zoology, Centre for Advanced Studies, University of Rajasthan, Jaipur, Rajasthan, India



Male, Infertility, Etiology, Treatments, Reproductive health


Infertility is one of the major health issues and a socially destabilizing condition for couples often causing marital disharmony. Infertility refers to the biological inability of an individual to contribute to conception over the course of one year of continuous unprotected intercourse. There are numerous factors such as anatomical, physiological, environmental, lifestyle and genetic factors that cause infertility. Male infertility can be diagnosed by different tools, for instance, physical examination, semen analysis, testicular biopsy, hormonal tests, urine test, immunobead test, sperm functional tests, sperm chromatin and abnormal deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) assays, chromosome and genetic studies. There are diverse treatment options available for male infertility inclusive of hormonal, pharmacological, non-pharmacological, antioxidants, anti-inflammatory therapy, surgical, assisted reproductive technologies (ART), combination and herbal supplement with lifestyle changes. The infertility of known etiology has ample treatment success rate that vary by age, accurate diagnosis and effective therapy along with shared decision-making which can facilitate achievement of fertility goals. Thus, the review summarizes classification, causes, and diagnosis with treatment modalities of male infertility.


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