Placental mesenchymal dysplasia: a diagnostic dilemma


  • Shivika Mittal
  • Chanderdeep Sharma
  • Prashant Dhatwalia



Placenta, Placentomegaly, Placental mesenchymal dysplasia, Partial mole


Placental mesenchymal dysplasia is a rare placental anomaly characterized by placental enlargement, dilatation and congestion of chorionic plate vessels, and villous edema without signs of trophoblastic proliferation. It is often confused with partial hydatidiform mole. It was first diagnosed in 1991 and the reported incidence is 0.02%. We hereby report a case of a 20 years PGR at a period of gestation 26 weeks 5 days with placental mesenchymal dysplasia. PMD is a rare entity that needs to be distinguished from molar pregnancy to prevent unnecessary termination of pregnancy. Once suspected, these patients should be treated as high-risk pregnancies as they are associated with intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR), intrauterine devices (IUD) and congenital anomalies.


Sun Y, Zheng J, Jiang Z, Zhang L, Ding S, Liu X. Placental mesenchymal dysplasia in a normal female infant: a rare case report with follow-up. Int J Clin Exp Pathol. 2020;13(5):896-900.

Tasha I, Lazebnik N. Placental Mesenchymal Dysplasia; Current Understanding of the Sonographic, Histologic, and Molecular Findings of a Rare and Challenging Disorder. J Gynecol Women’s Health. 2020;18(3):555989.

Parveen Z, Tongson Ignacio J, Fraser C, Killeen J, Thompson K, et al. Placental mesenchymal dysplasia. Arch Pathol Lab Med. 2007;131(1):131-7.

Kuwat T, Takahashi H, Matsubara S. ‘Stained-glass’ sign for placental mesenchymal dysplasia. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol. 2014;43(3)355.

Gerli S, Giordano C, Del Sordo R, Fratini D, Di Renzo GC. Early ultrasonographic diagnosis of placental mesenchymal dysplasia. Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci. 2014;18:2419-23.

Arizawa M, Nakayama M. Suspected involvement of the X chromosome in placental mesenchymal dysplasia. Congenit Anom (Kyoto). 2002;42:309-17.

Giorgione V, Cavoretto P, Cormio G, Valsecchi L, Vimercati A, et al. Prenatal diagnosis of twin pregnancies with complete hydatidiform mole and coexistent normal fetus: A series of 13 cases. Gynecol Obstet Invest. 2017;82(4):404-9.

Paradinas FJ, Sebire NJ, Fisher RA, Rees HC, Foskett M, et al. Pseudopartial moles: placental stem vessel hydrops and the association with Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome and complete moles. Histopathology. 2001;39(5):447-54.

Guenot C, Kingdom J, De Rham M, Osterheld M, Keating S, et al. Placental mesenchymal dysplasia: An underdiagnosed placental pathology with various clinical outcomes. Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol. 2019;234:155-64.

Arigita M, Illa M, Nadal A, Badenas C, Soler A, et al. Chorionic villus sampling in the prenatal diagnosis of placental mesenchymal dysplasia. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol. 2010;36(5):644-5.






Case Reports