Hysterosalpingography findings among women presenting for gynecological imaging in Ado-Ekiti, South western Nigeria


  • Olufunso S. Aduayi Department of Radiology, Faculty of Clinical Sciences, College of Medicine, Ekiti State University, Ado-Ekiti, Nigeria
  • Ganiyu O. Akanbi Department of Radiology, Faculty of Clinical Sciences, College of Medicine, Ekiti State University, Ado-Ekiti, Nigeria
  • Akinyemi A. Akintayo Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Faculty of Clinical Sciences, College of Medicine, Ekiti State University, Ado-Ekiti, Nigeria
  • Victor A. Aduayi Department of Epidemiology and Community Health, Faculty of Clinical Sciences, College of Medicine, Ekiti State University, Ado-Ekiti, Nigeria




Hysterosalpingography, Infertility, Tubal occlusion, Pain


Background: Hysterosalpingography (HSG) is a valuable radiological procedure for imaging the female reproductive tract. This study highlights the spectrum of HSG findings among women presenting for gynaecological imaging in a tertiary health institution in Ado-Ekiti, South western Nigeria.

Methods: A prospective cross sectional study was conducted between October 2014 and September 2015. The study population consisted of 134 women presenting at the Radiology department with request forms for HSG. Pelvic ultrasonography was done using a 3.5MHz transducer prior to HSG. Imaging findings were documented, results were entered into a spread sheet and analysed using SPSS version 20. Chi square was used to determine association between tubal occlusion, age, type of infertility and previous history of surgery. Statistical significance was set at p-values <0.05.

Results: The age range of the study participants was between 23 to 50 years with a mean age of 34.9±5.53years. Age group 30-34 years (n=43, 32.1%) constituted a majority. Secondary infertility (n=84, 62.7%) was the most common clinical indication for HSG. The predominant relevant past surgical history was uterine evacuation (n= 41, 30.6%). Normal HSG findings were seen in 34 (25.4%) of the patients while others (n=100, 74.5%) had various abnormalities, the most common of which were tubal pathologies (n=89, 66.4%). There was a significant association between age and tubal occlusion (P=0.02).

Conclusions: HSG is still a relevant gynecological imaging modality in resource limited settings. Tubal occlusion was the most common abnormal HSG finding in this study. There is a need for continuous advocacy on preventive measures targeted at reducing the incidence of tubal pathologies among women in developing countries.


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