Insight into epidemiology of male infertility in central India


  • Ayushi Agarwal Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology and Reproductive medicine, Gandhi Medical College, Bhopal, Madhya Pradesh, India
  • Aviral Srivastava Department of Surgery, Institute of Medical Sciences, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi, Uttar Pradesh, India
  • Farheen Fathima Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology and Reproductive medicine, Gandhi Medical College, Bhopal, Madhya Pradesh, India
  • Bharti Lodhi Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology and Reproductive medicine, Gandhi Medical College, Bhopal, Madhya Pradesh, India



Male infertility, Infertility, Epidemiology, Semen analysis, Central India


Background: Approximately 10% to 15% of couples in developing countries are infertile. Male infertility is responsible for 20-43% of infertility cases and contributes to another 12-20% of cases. Azoospermia, oligozoospermia, asthenozoospermia, teratozoospermia, and oligoasthenoteratozoospermia are abnormal sperm parameters causing male infertility. Male infertility is often poorly responsive to primary treatment and often requires supportive secondary measures. The understanding of causes and modifiable risk factors for male infertility would enable their prevention and primary treatment. Aims and objectives of current study was to analyze the epidemiology and clinical factors of male infertility in Central India and identify its risk factors.

Methods: 100 male patients attending outpatient for treatment of infertility were evaluated using a questionnaire. Semen samples were collected and spermatozoa were assessed according to WHO 2021 data for semen analysis. The results were tabulated and analyzed.

Results: Amongst patients were semen abnormalities, the majority (34%) of patients had oligoasthenoteratozoospermia. All semen abnormalities were most common in the age group 35-45 years and in patients with 5-10 years duration of infertility. All semen abnormalities except azoospermia were most common in people with a monthly income of >2,000-5,000. The majority of the patients had a past history of urogenital tract infection, except oligoasthenospermic males in whom the majority had varicocele. All semen abnormalities were more common among businessmen and also more prevalent among smokers.

Conclusions: Couples should be educated about infertility causes and the contribution of male infertility to it. Multifactorial analysis along with clinicopathological analysis should contribute to accurate diagnosis of the cause of male infertility and proposal of adequate measures.


Glazer CH, Eisenberg ML, Tøttenborg SS. Male factor infertility and risk of death: a nationwide record-linkage study. Hum Reprod. 2019;34(11): 2266-2273.

Agarwal A, Baskaran S, Parekh N, et al. Male infertility. Lancet. 2021;397(10271):319-33.

Hanson BM, Eisenberg ML, Hotaling JM. Male infertility: a biomarker of individual and familial cancer risk. Fertil Steril. 2018;109:6-19.

Tvrda E, Agarwal A, Alkuhaimi N. Male reproductive cancers and infertility: a mutual relationship. Int J Mol Sci. 2015;16:7230-60.

Okonofua FE, Ntoimo L, Omonkhua A. Causes and risk factors for male infertility: a scoping review of Published Studies. Int J Gen Med. 2022;15:5985-97.

Iketubosin F. In vitro fertilization embryo transfer processes and pathway: a review from practice perspective. Trop J Obstet Gynaecol. 2018;35(3):227-32.

Shiraishi E, Takae S, Faizal AM. The scenario of adoption and foster care in relation to the reproductive medicine practice in Asia. Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2021;18(7):3466.

Boitrelle F, Shah R, Saleh R. The Sixth Edition of the WHO Manual for Human Semen Analysis: A Critical Review and SWOT Analysis. Life. 2021;11(12):1368.

Abdoulaye D, Fotso A. Semen abnormality patterns and parameters in male partners of infertile couples in Dakar (Senegal). J Urol. 2015;5:155-60.

Muhamad S, Sengupta P, Ramli R. Sociodemographic factors associated with semen quality among Malaysian men attending fertility clinic. Andrologia. 2019;51(10):e13383.

Kumar N, Singh AK, Choudhari AR. Impact of age on semen parameters in male partners of infertile couples in a rural tertiary care center of central India: A cross-sectional study. Int J Reprod Biomed. 2017; 15(8):497-502.

Umashankar KM, Mukherjee J, Cristy R. Epidemiology of male infertility at a tertiary hospital in Eastern India. J South Asian Feder Obst Gyncol. 2016;8(2):101-6.

Kenkel S, Rolf C, Nieschlag E. Occupational risks for male fertility: an analysis of patients attending a tertiary referral centre. Int J Androl. 2001;24(6):318-26.

López-Botella A, Velasco I, Acién M. Impact of heavy metals on human male fertility-an overview. Antioxidants. 2021;10(9):1473.

Rehman R, Zahid N, Amjad S. Relationship between smoking habit and sperm parameters among patients attending an infertility clinic. Front Physiol. 2019;10: 1356.

Bundhun PK, Janoo G, Bhurtu A. Tobacco smoking and semen quality in infertile males: a systematic review and meta-analysis. BMC Public Health. 2019; 19:36.






Original Research Articles