To study the effect of maternal basal metabolic index on the pregnancy and perinatal outcome

Rekha Wadhwani, Sangita Khobragade, Pallavi Singh


Background: Obesity and underweight is a leading, preventable cause of mortality worldwide and it is one of the most serious public health problems of the 21st century. In developing countries like India, the obesity and underweight are very important risk factors for maternal and neonatal mortality and morbidity. The objective of the study was to evaluate the effect of maternal BMI on the pregnancy outcome and perinatal outcome.

Methods: our study included 504 antenatal cases attending OPD in Sultania Zanana hospital, Bhopal, India in their first trimester in their first visit, from the period of July2014 to June 2015. BMI of the cases calculated and categorized the women in five groups as per WHO and National Institute of Health guidelines1-2 and they were followed up in their subsequent visits in relation to any pregnancy complication and perinatal outcome.

Results: It was observed that majority of women 402 (79.7 %) were between the age group of 20-25 years. Mean Age - 23.33 yrs. maximum number of women i.e. 242 (48 %) were in Normal weight group with BMI between 18.5- 24.9. Obesity is associated with increased incidence of pre-eclampsia, gestational hypertension, gestational diabetes, induced delivery, Instrument/assisted deliveries, caesarean delivery, ICU admissions complicating maternal outcome and LGA, NICU admissions and perinatal mortality complicating perinatal outcome; while underweight women appear to have Anemia, IUGR, post-partum infections and SGA babies.

Conclusions: From this tudy, we concluded that the health of women throughout their child bearing years should be addressed, to improve the pregnancy and the perinatal outcomes. Therefore, education programs, health services and nutrition consultation are recommended for women in reproductive age.


BMI, Obesity, Pre-eclampsia

Full Text:



BMI Classification. Global Database on Body Mass Index. World Health Organization. 2006.

Classification of overweight and obesity. National institute of health October. 2000.

Institute of Medicine. Nutrition during pregnancy. Washington: National Academy of Sciences; 1990.

Garrow JS, Webster J. Quetelet’s index (W/H2) as a measure of fatness. Int J Obes. 1985;9(2):147-53.

Eknoyan G, Quetelet A (1796-1874) - the average man and indices of obesity. Nephrol Dial Transplant. 2008;23(1):47-51.

National Family Health Survey (NFHS-3) India 2005-2006.

Bhattachary S, Campbell DM, Liston WA. Effect of body mass index on pregnancy outcomes in nulliparous women delivering singleton babies. BMC Public Health. 2007;7:168.

Verma A, Shrimali L. Index maternal body mass and pregnancy outcome. J Clindiagn Res. 2012;6(9):1531-3.

Yazdani S, Yosofniyapasha Y, Nasab BH, Mojaveri MH, Bouzari Z. Effect of maternal body mass index on pregnancy outcome and newborn weight. 2012;5:34.

Aimukhametova G, Ukybasova T, Hamidullina Z, Zhubanysheva K, Harun-Or-Rashid M, Yoshida Y, Kasuya H. The impact of maternal obesity on mother and neonatal health: study in a tertiary hospital of Astana, Kazakhstan. Nagoya J Med Sci. 2012;74(1-2):83-92.

Demont-Heinrich C. The association of prepregnancy body mass index and adverse maternal and perinatal outcomes; colorado department of public health and environment. 2009;69:1-5.

Pakniat H, Movahed F. Association between body mass index and weight gain during pregnancy with preterm delivery. Journal of Qazvin University of Medical Sciences. 2013;17(3):12-9.

Kalk P, Guthmann F. Impact of maternal body mass index on neonatal outcome. Eur J Med Res. 2009;14(5):216-22.

Dasgupta A, Habeebullah S. Pregnancy outcome among Obese Indians - a prospective cohort study in a tertiary care centre in south India. Int J Sci Stud. 2014;2(2):13-18.