Incidence and risk factors associated with caesarean section among Bangladeshi women: a retrospective cross-sectional study

Authors

  • Sohelee Nargis Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Kumudini Women's Medical College, Mirzapur, Tangail, Bangladesh
  • Rabea Khatun Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Kumudini Women's Medical College, Mirzapur, Tangail, Bangladesh
  • Kakali Saha Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Medical College for Women and Hospital, Uttara, Dhaka, Bangladesh
  • Shilpi Saha Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Medical College for Women and Hospital, Uttara, Dhaka, Bangladesh

DOI:

https://doi.org/10.18203/2320-1770.ijrcog20230300

Keywords:

Risk factors, Caesarean section, Eclampsia, Fetal weight

Abstract

Background: Caesarean section is a lifesaving procedure in the presence of maternal and fetal complications. In recent decades the rate of caesarean section is increasing rapidly due to several associated risk factors. The objective of this study was to assess the prevalence and associated risk factors of C-sections among women at Kumudini Women's medical college.

Methods: This retrospective cross-sectional study was conducted at the department of obstetrics and gynaecology in Kumudini Women's Medical College, Tangail, Bangladesh. The study was conducted during the period of July 2019 to January 2020. The total sample size this study was 2105.

Results: Majority 696 (33.1%) of participants were aged between 18-24 years and followed by 464(22%) aged 25-30, 569 (27%) aged 31-35 and the rest 376 (17.9%) were aged 36-40 years. A significant association was noticed in respect of previous history of CS, gestation age and fetal weight with the type of delivery (p value, 0.000, 0.033, 0.021). whereas in parity there was no significant relationship with caesarean section (p value, 0.421). A significant association was noticed in respect of pre-eclampsia, eclampsia induction failure, fetal distress, APH, twin, malpresentation, and the type of delivery (p value, 0.02, 0.003, 0.001, 0.001, 0.002, 0.04, 0.03 and 0.1). Whereas in PROM there was no significant relationship with caesarean section (p value=0.1).

Conclusions: This study concludes that the incidence of caesarean sections is seemed to be very high in Bangladesh. Although it is a life-saving procedure, it is important to choose carefully when performing a C-section birth.

References

Maktha VK, Ghatam A, Padamata H, Ravulakol A. Prevalence and factors associated with caesarean section: a community based cross sectional study in rural parts of Rangareddy district, Telangana, India. Int J Community Med Public Health. 2016;3(8):2054-7.

Hannah ME. Planned elective cesarean section: A reasonable choice for some women? C Can Med Assoc J. 2004;170(5):813.

Gedefaw G, Demis A, Alemnew B, Wondmieneh A, Getie A, Waltengus F. Prevalence, indications, and outcomes of caesarean section deliveries in Ethiopia: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Patient Saf Surg. 2020;14(1):23-9.

Waniala I, Nakiseka S, Nambi W, Naminya I, Osuban Ajeni M, Iramiot J, et al. Prevalence, Indications, and Community Perceptions of Caesarean Section Delivery in Ngora District, Eastern Uganda: Mixed Method Study. Obstet Gynecol Int. 2020;2020.

Lauer JA, Betrán AP, Merialdi M, Wojdyla D. Determinants of caesarean section rates in developed countries: supply, demand and opportunities for control. World Heal Rep. 2010;29.

Gebremedhin S. Trend and socio-demographic differentials of Caesarean section rate in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia: Analysis based on Ethiopia demographic and health surveys data. Reprod Health. 2014;11(1):1-6.

Boerma T, Ronsmans C, Melesse DY, Barros AJD, Barros FC, Juan L, et al. Global epidemiology of use of and disparities in caesarean sections. Lancet. 2018; 392(10155):1341-8.

Betran AP, Torloni MR, Zhang JJ, Gülmezoglu AM. WHO Statement on Caesarean Section Rates. BJOG. 2016;123(5):667-70.

Betrán AP, Merialdi M, Lauer JA, Bing-Shun W, Thomas J, Van Look P, et al. Rates of caesarean section: analysis of global, regional and national estimates. Paediatr Perinat Epidemiol. 2007;21(2):98-113.

WHO Statement on Caesarean Section Rates. Geneva, Switzerland: Department of Reproductive Health and Research. Available at: https://www. who.int/publications/i/item/WHO-RHR-15.02. Accessed on 20 November 2022.

Bangladesh Maternal Health Services and Maternal Mortality Survey 2001. Available at: https:// dhsprogram.com/pubs/pdf/FR142/FR142.pdf. Accessed on 20 November 2022.

Bangladesh Demographic and Health Survey 2017-18: Key Indicators. Available at: https://microdata. worldbank.org/index.php/catalog/3825. Accessed on 20 November 2022.

Leone T, Padmadas SS, Matthews Z. Community factors affecting rising caesarean section rates in developing countries: an analysis of six countries. Soc Sci Med. 2008;67(8):1236-46.

Begum T, Rahman A, Nababan H, Emdadul Hoque DM, Khan AF, Ali T, et al. Indications and determinants of caesarean section delivery: Evidence from a population-based study in Matlab, Bangladesh. PLoS One. 2017;12(11):e0188074.

Jacob L, Taskan S, Macharey G, Sechet I, Ziller V, Kostev K. Impact of caesarean section on mode of delivery, pregnancy-induced and pregnancy-associated disorders, and complications in the subsequent pregnancy in Germany. GMS Ger Med Sci. 2016;14.

Rahman M, Shariff AA, Shafie A, Saaid R, Tahir RM. Caesarean delivery and its correlates in Northern Region of Bangladesh: Application of logistic regression and cox proportional hazard model. J Heal Popul Nutr. 2015;33(1):34-8.

Al Rifai RH. Trend of caesarean deliveries in Egypt and its associated factors: Evidence from national surveys, 2005-2014. BMC Preg Childbirth. 2017; 17(1):1-14.

Häger RM, Daltveit AK, Hofoss D, Nilsen ST, Kolaas T, Øian P, Henriksen T. Complications of cesarean deliveries: rates and risk factors. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2004;190(2):428-34.

Thakur DV, Chiheriya DH. Maternal and Fetal Outcome in Emergency versus Elective Caesarean Section. J Nepal Health Res Counc. 2020;18(2):186-9.

Pallasmaa N, Ekblad U, Aitokallio-Tallberg A, Uotila J, Raudaskoski T, Ulander VM, et al. Cesarean delivery in Finland: maternal complications and obstetric risk factors. Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand. 2010;89(7):896-902.

Sandall J, Tribe RM, Avery L, Mola G, Visser GH, Homer CS, et al. Short-term and long-term effects of caesarean section on the health of women and children. Lancet. 2018;392(10155):1349-57.

Gunes M, Kayikcioglu F, Ozturkoglu E, Haberal A. Incisional endometriosis after cesarean section, episiotomy and other gynecologic procedures. J Obstet Gynaecol Res. 2005;31(5):471-5.

Barber EL, Lundsberg LS, Belanger K, Pettker CM, Funai EF, Illuzzi JL. Indications contributing to the increasing cesarean delivery rate. Obstet Gynecol. 2011;118(1):29-38.

Marx H, Wiener J, Davies N. A survey of the influence of patients’ choice on the increase in the caesarean section rate. J Obstet Gynaecol. 2001;21(2):124-7.

WHO Statement on Caesarean Section Rates. Available at: https://www.who.int/news-room/ questions-and-answers/item. Accessed on 20 November 2022.

Taha Z, Hassan AA, Wikkeling-Scott L, Papandreou D. Prevalence and Associated Factors of Caesarean Section and its Impact on Early Initiation of Breastfeeding in Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates. Nutrients. 2019;11(11):23-8.

Meless MB, Geremew AB, Abebe SM. High prevalence of caesarean birth among mothers delivered at health facilities in Bahir Dar city, Amhara region, Ethiopia. A comparative study. PLoS One. 2020;15(4):e0231631.

Karim F, Ali NB, Khan ANS, Hassan A, Hasan MM, Hoque DME, et al. Prevalence and factors associated with caesarean section in four Hard-to-Reach areas of Bangladesh: Findings from a cross-sectional survey. PLoS One. 2020;15(6):e0234249.

Tsegaye H, Desalegne B, Wassihun B, Bante A, Fikadu K, Debalkie M, et al. Prevalence and associated factors of caesarean section in Addis Ababa hospitals, Ethiopia. Pan Afr Med J. 2019;34:1937.

Verma V, Vishwakarma RK, Nath DC, Khan HTA, Prakash R, Abid O. Prevalence and determinants of caesarean section in South and South-East Asian women. PLoS One. 2020;15(3):e0229906.

Rayburn WF, Zhang J. Rising rates of labor induction: Present concerns and future strategies. Obstet Gynecol. 2002;100(1):164-7.

Rayamajhi RT, Karki C, Shrestha N, Padhye SM. Indication for labour induction and predictors for failed induction at KMCTH. Kathmandu Univ Med J (KUMJ). 2009;7(25):21-5.

Vrouenraets FPJM, Roumen FJME, Dehing CJG, Van Den Akker ESA, Aarts MJB, Scheve EJT. Bishop score and risk of cesarean delivery after induction of labor in nulliparous women. Obstet Gynecol. 2005; 105(4):690-7.

Caughey AB, Stotland NE, Washington AE, Escobar GJ. Maternal and obstetric complications of pregnancy are associated with increasing gestational age at term. Am Coll Obstet Gynecol. 2007;196:155.e1-6.

Neiger R. Fetal macrosomia in the diabetic patient. Clin Obstet Gynecol. 1992;35(1):138-50.

Rand L, Robinson JN, Economy KE, Norwitz ER. Post-term induction of labor revisited. Obstet Gynecol. 2000;96(5):779-83.

Huamán N. Factores relacionados a partos por Cesárea en el Hospital II EsSalud de Huánuco. Rev Peru Investig Salud. 2018;2(1):10-7.

Chavarry F, Cabrera R, Díaz J. Perfil del embarazo prolongado en pacientes de un hospital general. Available at: http://www.scielo.org.pe/scielo. Accessed on 20 November 2022.

Hathout HM, Elsaid NBA, Gabr HM. Prevalence of cesarean section delivery and associated risk factors. Egypt Family Med J. 2021;5(1):23-9.

Sinchitullo-Castillo AE, Roldán-Arbieto L, Arango-Ochante PM. Factors associated with cesarean delivery in a Peruvian hospital. Rev Fac Med Hum. 2020;20(3):444-51.

Downloads

Published

2023-02-06

Issue

Section

Original Research Articles