Risk factors of carcinoma cervix


  • Hachina Akhter Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Hathazari Upazilla Health Complex, Hathazari, Chattogram, Bangladesh
  • Ferdousi Begum Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Institute of Applied Health and Sciences, Foy's Lake, Chattogram, Bangladesh




Carcinoma cervix, Multiparity, Screening test


Background: Cervical cancer is a cancer of the cervix uteri. It may present with vaginal bleeding but symptoms may be absent until the cancer is in its advanced stage. Cervix is the commonest site for female genital cancer. Cancer cervix is the most common cancer in women in developing countries where screening facilities are inadequate. This study aimed to analyze the risk factors of carcinoma cervix.

Methods: This descriptive study was conducted in Chittagong Medical College Hospital, taking 100 randomly selected patients of carcinoma cervix for one year (July 2019 to June 2020). The patients were selected from the gynae ward of Chittagong Medical College Hospital.

Results: Among the study subjects, most of the respondents (32, 32.0%) belonged to 51-60 years old followed by (24, 24.0%) 41-50 years and >60 years of age. Maximum patients (84, 84.0%) were Muslim, followed by Hindu (14, 14.0). regarding occupation, a maximum (94, 94.0%) were housewives, and concerning marital status, most (88, 88.0%) of them were married. In this study, 36 (36.0%) patients had primary education followed by (30, 30.0%) secondary education. Most of the patients' spouses (32, 32.0%) were day laborers, followed by (24, 24.0%) service holders. In 78.0% of cases, the husband lived with the patients and 12.0% were apart but within the country and 10.0% live abroad. In 14.0% of cases, the husband had another sex partner. Among the study population, 18.0% of patients were habituated to chewing tobacco. Among the 100 patients multiparity (84.0%), early marriage (36.0%) early age of first intercourse (36.0%) and below average socioeconomic group (72.0%), and high-risk male partners (28.0%), and few multiple sex partner and STDs.

Conclusions: In developing countries like Bangladesh, the majority of cases of carcinoma cervix are diagnosed at an advanced stage. Most of the cases were from poor to middle socio-economic backgrounds. Multiparity, early marriage, early age of first intercourse, and high-risk male partner were the main risk factors for the development of carcinoma cervix.


Kumar V, Abbas AK, Fausto N, Mitcheii RN. Elsevier. 2007;718-21.

Parking DM, Pisani P, Ferlay J. Estimates of the worldwide incidence of eighteen major cancer in 1985. Int J Cancer. 1993;54:594-606.

Jeffcoate N. Tumors of cervix uteri. In: Bhatia N, editor. Jeffcoate's Principles of Gynocology, 7th international edition, Arnold. 2008;467.

Dutta DC, Konar H. Cervical Cancer, Text book of Gynaecology, 6th Edition. 2008.

Dewhurst J. Pre malignant and malignant disease of the cervix. In: de Keith Edmonds, Editor. Dewhust's Textbook of Obstetrics and Gynecology for Postgraduates, London, 7th edition. 2007;615.

Singh V, Seghal A, Parashri A. Early education of cervical cancer through acetic acid application- An wided visual inspection. Singapore Med J. 2001;42(8):351-4.

Dechemey AH, Nathan L. Pre-malignant and malignant disorders of the uterine cervix. In Current Obstetrics and Gynecologic Diagnosis and treatment, 10th edition. 2018;843-52.

Marrazzo JM, Koutsky LA, Kiviat NB, Kuypers JM, Stine K. Papanicoiaou test screening and prevalence of genital human papiliomavivus among women who have sex with women. Am J Public Health. 2001;91(6):947-52.

Parkin DM, Bray F, Ferlay J, Pisani P. Global cancer statistics, 2002. CA Cancer J Clin. 2005;55(2):74-108.

Misra JS, Srivastava S, Singh U, Srivastava AN. Risk-factors and strategies for control of carcinorna cervix in India: Hospital based cytology screening experience of 35 years. Indian J Cancer. 2009;46:155-8.

Snijders PJ, Steenbergen RD, Heideman DA, Meijer CJ. HPV- mediated cervical carcinogenesis: concepts and clinical implications. J Pathol. 2006;208(2).

Wang J, Andrae B, Sundström K, Ploner A, Ström P, Elfström KM, Dillner J, Sparén P. Effectiveness of cervical screening after age 60 years according to screening history: Nationwide cohort study in Sweden. PLoS Med. 2017;14(10):e1002414.

Banu LA. Surgical Treatment of Carcinoma Cervix. Dissertation. Bangladesh. 1984.

Mushaheda B. Clinical profile of carcinorna cervix patients in MMCH. BCPS. 2007.

Emembolu JO, Ekwempu CC. Carcinoma of the cervix uteri hxZaria: etiological factors. Int J Gynecol Obstet. 1988;26:265-9.

Fauzia K, Maula J. Presentation of invasive cervical cancer. J Bangladesh Colt Phys Surg. 2002;115-9.

Buckley JD, Harris RW, Doll R, Vessey MP, Williams PT. Case-control study of the husbands of women with dysplasia or carcinoma of the cervix uteri. Lancet. 1981;2(8254):1010-5.

Moodley M, Moodley J, Chetty R, Herrington CS. The role of steroid contraceptive hormones in the pathogenesis of invasive cervical cancer: a review. Int J Gynecol Cancer. 2003;13(2):103-10.

Kunos CA, Sherertz TM. Long-term disease control with triapine-based radiochemotherapy for patients with stage IB2–IIIB cervical cancer. Front Oncol. 2014;4:184.






Original Research Articles