Obstetric and perinatal outcome of multiple pregnancy: a retrospective study
Keywords:Multiple gestation, Twin pregnancy, Multiple pregnancy, Obstetric outcomes, Neonatal outcomes, Hypothyroid
Background: Obstetricians and paediatricians are concerned about multiple pregnancy because of its high association with maternal and perinatal morbidity and mortality. This study aims to determine the obstetric and perinatal outcome of multiple pregnancy at a teaching hospital in Southern India.
Methods: This retrospective study was conducted in the department of obstetrics and gynecology, Basaweshwar teaching and general hospital, and Sangmeshwar teaching and general hospital, attached to Mahadevappa Rampure medical college, Kalaburagi from August 2020 to August 2022. The analysis included data on 36 women between 20 and 35 years of age, with ≥ 24 completed weeks gestation, having multiple pregnancy during the study period after applying the exclusion criteria. The data was retrieved from the hospital medical records that included demographic details, complications of pregnancy, and maternal and neonatal outcomes. The data was expressed as frequencies, percentages, mean and standard deviation. Statistical data was analyzed using SPSS 20.0 software. Qualitative data of the maternal problems during intrapartum and postpartum period was done using the test of proportion and chi-square test was applied for significance. Quantitative data was analyzed by t test considering a p value less than 0.05 as statistically significant.
Results: There were a total of 36 women with multiple pregnancy with the overall incidence of 12.5 per 1,000 births (1.25%) during the study period. Preterm labour complicated 27.7% of multiple pregnancies, 13.8% of the multiple pregnancies were complicated by severe preeclampsia, 11.1% were complicated by imminent preeclampsia, 8.3% had intrauterine death in 1 of the twins, and 2.7% had oligohydramnios. 33.3% had iron deficiency anaemia, 22.2% had gestational hypertension, and 13.8% had hypothyroidism. There was no maternal morbidity. Majority (55%) were delivered by LSCS, whereas 44.4% were delivered vaginally. Postpartum haemorrhage complicated 5.5% of twin deliveries. The total fetal loss was 2.4%. There was no maternal mortality in our study.
Conclusions: There is higher incidence of adverse maternal and perinatal outcomes among multiple pregnancies than singleton pregnancies. This mandates adequate counselling about risks and required monitoring to avoid adverse outcomes.
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