A study of the age profile, diagnosis, type of sample, adequacy of sample and the results of patients undergoing cervical cytology at a tertiary care center


  • Sri Saran Manivasagam Department of Urology, Gynecology, Armed Forces Medical College, Pune, Maharashtra, India




Carcinoma cervix, Cervical cytology, Papanicoloau smear


Background: Carcinoma of cervix is the most common genital malignancy in India. It is an indolent cancer which can be picked up at an early stage using screening methods such as Papanicoloau smear and liquid based cytology. The present study was undertaken to analyze the age distribution, diagnosis, type of sample, adequacy of sample and results of patients undergoing cervical cytology screening.

Methods: The study was conducted using 300 random cytology reports from the pathology department of a tertiary care center in the period of 5 months from January 2019 to May 2019. Patient’s data was collected and analyzed.

Results: The percentage of patients in each age group undergoing cervical cytology was: 21-30 years (7.4%), 31-40 years (14.6%), 41-50 years (36%), 51-60 years (30.7%), 61-70 years (10.7%) and 71-80 years (0.6%). The most common diagnosis/indication for doing cervical cytology is screening (41.6%), followed by abnormal uterine bleeding (24%). 95% of samples sent for cytology were liquid based cytology. Among the 300 samples sent to the pathology department for cervical cytology, 290 were adequate for opinion (97%) and 10 were inadequate for opinion (3%). The results are as follows: negative for intraepithelial lesion or malignancy (68%), inflammatory smear (8%), ASCUS (6%), ASC-H (3%), LSIL (9%), HSIL (6%).

Conclusions: Most samples belonged to the age group of 41-50 years. Common indication being screening. Most samples were adequate for opinion. Most commonly, they were reported as negative for intraepithelial lesion or malignancy.


Padubidri V, Daftary S, Shaw W. Howkin’s and Bourne Shaw’s textbook of gynaecology. 16th edn. India: Elsevier; 2015.

Hoffman B, Schorge J, Bradshaw K, Halvorson L, Schaffer J, Corton M. Williams Gynecology. 3rd edn. Mc Graw Hill Education; 2016.

Bray F. (2005). Trends in cervical squamous cell carcinoma incidence in 13 european countries: changing risk and the effects of screening. Cancer Epidemiol Biomark Prevent. 2005;14(3):677-86.

Denny L, Kuhn L, Pollack A, Wainwright H, Wright T. Evaluation of alternative methods of cervical cancer screening for resource-poor settings. Cancer. 2000;89(4):826-33.

Goldie S, Gaffikin L, Goldhaber-Fiebert J, Gordillo-Tobar A, Levin C, Mahé C, et al. Cost-effectiveness of cervical-cancer screening in five developing countries. N Engl J Med. 2005;353(20):2158-68.

Ritu G. Acetic acid visualisation of cervix as an alternative screening method for cervical cancer in low resource settings. J Med Sci Clin Res. 2017;5(11).

Moyer V. Screening for cervical cancer: US preventive services task force recommendation statement. Ann Intern Med. 2012;156(12):880.

Hyne S. The Bethesda System for Reporting Cervical Cytology: definitions, criteria, and explanatory notes: 2nd Edn. Pathology. 2005;37(4):328-9.

Cuzick J, Clavel C, Petry K, Meijer C, Hoyer H, Ratnam S, et al. Overview of the European and North American studies on HPV testing in primary cervical cancer screening. Int J Cancer. 2006;119(5):1095-101.

Lee K, Ashfaq R, Birdsong G, Corkill M, Mclntosh K, Inhorn S. Comparison of conventional papanicolaou smears and a fluid-based, thin-layer system for cervical cancer screening. J Lower Genit Tract Dis. 1998;2(1):40.

Sankaranarayanan R. HPV screening for cervical cancer in rural India. N Engl J Med. 2009;361(3):304-6.

Kerkar RA, Kulkarni YV. Screening for cervical cancer: an overview. J Obstet Gynecol India. 2006;56(2):115-22.

Verma I, JaIn V, Kaur T. Application of Bethesda system for cervical cytology in unhealthy cervix. J Clin Diagn Res. 2014;8(9):OC26.

Bal MS, Goyal R, Suri AK, Mohi MK. Detection of abnormal cervical cytology in Papanicolaou smears. J Cytol. 2012;29(1):45.

Pradhan N, Giri K, Rana A. Cervical cytological study in unhealthy and healthy looking cervix. Nepal J Obstet Gynaecol. 2007;2(2):42-7.

Akinola OI, Fabamwo AO, Oshodi YA, Banjo AA, Odusanya O, Gbadegesin A, et al. Efficacy of visual inspection of the cervix using acetic acid in cervical cancer screening: a comparison with cervical cytology. J Obstet Gynaecol. 2007;27(7):703-5.






Original Research Articles