False increase of serum cancer risk markers in a case of benign uterine bleeding

Argiri Sianou, George Galyfos, Dimitra Moragianni, Stiliani Demeridou, Georgios Kaparos, Evaggelia Kouskouni


Co-infection by specific Chlamydia species and Human Papilloma Virus has been associated with genital carcinogenesis. Additionally, modern serum biomarkers and risk algorithms for diagnosis and prognosis have proven their efficacy in patients with ovarian cancer although data on endometrial or cervical malignancies are still sparse. We aim to present an unusual case of serum cancer biomarkers increase in a premenopausal female suffering from recurrent uterine bleeding and genital infection by several pathogens. We further discuss proper utilization of these diagnostic tools in such unusual cases.


Abnormal uterine bleeding, HPV infection, Cancer biomarkers, Human epididymitis protein 4

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