Impact of COVID-19 in social, physical and functional quality of life among reproductive female patients


  • Progga Mahajabin Department of Epidemiology and Research, Cardiovascular Health, National Heart Foundation, Dhaka, Bangladesh
  • Zakia Sultana Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Shaheed M. Monsur Ali Medical College Hospital, Sirajganj, Bangladesh
  • M. Ziaul Islam Department of Community Medicine, National Institute of Preventive and Social Medicine, Dhaka, Bangladesh
  • Tanjina Sarmin Department of Immunization and Vaccine Development, World Health Organization, Bhola, Bangladesh
  • M. Maksuda Parvin Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Sarkari Karmochari Hospital, Fulbaria, Dhaka, Bangladesh
  • Mossa Nupur Aktar Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Shaheed M. Monsur Ali Medical College Hospital, Sirajganj, Bangladesh
  • M. Husnaion Zubery Department of Radiology and Imaging, Rajshahi Medical College Hospital, Rajshahi, Bangladesh
  • Falguni Binte Rahman Department of Pharmacology and Therapeutics, Naogaon Medical College, Naogaon, Bangladesh



COVID-19, Functional quality of life, Physical quality of life, Productive female patients, Social quality of life


Background: Those who recovered from the COVID-19, suffers various health-related as well as mental problems. To measure a person's disease impact, disability, and mental condition, health-related quality of life (HRQoL) is used. The aim of this study was to assess the state of health-related quality of life of women of reproductive age after recovery from COVID-19.

Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted in Department of Reproductive and Child Health, National Institutes of Public Health and Social Medicine in Mohakhali, Dhaka, Bangladesh, during the period from January to December 2020. Total 202 women of reproductive age who were recovered from COVID-19 were included in this study.

Results: In this study, majority of the women (46%) were within 36-50 years and majority (20.8%) had bronchial asthma. Most of the respondents suffering from COVID-19 from 15 days to 3 months (43.6%). In a study, the average HRQOL score among respondents was 66.01 (±11.81), with physical well-being scoring highest (19.89±4.41) and functional well-being lowest (14.44 ±4.19). Age-wise, respondents aged 15-25 scored highest in various health domains. Statistical analysis revealed significant differences in Fact-G scores across age groups, with 15-25-year-olds scoring highest, indicating a notable age-related variation in health quality.

Conclusions: Findings of the study shows that fifteen to twenty-five years’ age of women’s HRQOL was higher than other groups. Educated women have better HRQOL score. Physical wellbeing was higher than other domains and functional wellbeing was lower than other domains. Elderly women who had comorbidities had lower HRQOL score.


Zhu N, Zhang D, Wang W, Li X, Yang B, Song J, et al. A novel coronavirus from patients with pneumonia in China, 2019. N Eng J Medi. 2020;382(8):727-33.

Whoqol Group. The World Health Organization quality of life assessment (WHOQOL): position paper from the World Health Organization. Soci Sci Medi. 1995;41(10):1403-9.

Guyatt GH, Feeny DH, Patrick DL. Measuring health-related quality of life. Ann Intern Med. 1993;118(8):622-9.

Brooks SK, Webster RK, Smith LE, Woodland L, Wessely S, Greenberg N, et al. The psychological impact of quarantine and how to reduce it: rapid review of the evidence. Lancet. 2020;395(10227):912-20.

Huang C, Huang L, Wang Y, Li X, Ren L, Gu X, et al. 6-month consequences of COVID-19 in patients discharged from hospital: a cohort study. Lancet. 2021;397(10270):220-32.

Collins C, Landivar LC, Ruppanner L, Scarborough WJ. COVID‐19 and the gender gap in work hours. Gender, Work & Organization. 2021;28:101-12.

Pfefferbaum B, North CS. Mental health and the COVID-19 pandemic. N Eng J Medi. 2020;383(6):510-2.

Wenham C, Smith J, Morgan R. COVID-19: the gendered impacts of the outbreak. Lancet. 2020;395(10227):846-8.

WHO Coronavirus Disease. COVID-19 Situation Reports, 2020. Available at: 2019/situation-reports. Accessed 3 April 2020.

Islam MZ, Riaz BK, Islam AN, Khanam F, Akhter J, Choudhury R, et al. Risk factors associated with morbidity and mortality outcomes of COVID-19 patients on the 28th day of the disease course: a retrospective cohort study in Bangladesh. Epidemiol Infect. 2020;148:e263.

Mohiuddin AK. Diabetes fact: Bangladesh perspective. Int J Diab Res. 2019;2(1):14-20.

Greenhalgh T, Knight M, Buxton M, Husain L. Management of post-acute COVID-19 in primary care. BMJ. 2020;370.

Hossain AF, Islam MZ, Khatun SF. Health related quality of life of thyroid cancer patients: HRQL of thyroid cancer patients. J Prevent Soc Medi. 2019;38(2):1-8.

Klompstra L, Ekdahl AW, Krevers B, Milberg A, Eckerblad J. Factors related to health-related quality of life in older people with multimorbidity and high health care consumption over a two-year period. BMC Geriatr. 2019;19(1):1-8.






Original Research Articles