Unforeseen effects of COVID-19 on reproductive hormones and health of Indian women

Authors

  • Sheela Sharma Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Rama Medical College Hospital and Research Centre, Mandhana, Kanpur, Uttar Pradesh, India
  • Nashra Afaq Department of Microbiology and Central Research Laboratory, Rama Medical College Hospital and Research Centre, Mandhana, Kanpur, Uttar Pradesh, India

DOI:

https://doi.org/10.18203/2320-1770.ijrcog20240159

Keywords:

COVID-19 pandemic, Reproductive hormones, Women health

Abstract

Numerous systematic probes, clinical studies and research papers have been published to depict, interpret, explain and understand the impacts and underlying mechanism of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic and its long-term effects on the female body. COVID-19 affects a number of organs, including the female reproductive function and hormonal profile. However, less attention has been given to the effects of COVID-19 on the female reproductive system due to their low morbidity. The available results of studies involving correlation that COVID-19 infection and ovarian function holds in women of reproductive age has been shown as harmless in most cases. Although, several studies have reported the involvement of COVID-19 infection in oocyte quality, ovarian function, and dysfunctions in the uterine endometrium and the menstrual cycle. The findings of these studies indicate that COVID-19 infection negatively affects the follicular microenvironment and dysregulate ovarian function. Although the COVID-19 pandemic and female reproductive health have been studied in humans and other animals, very few studies have examined how COVID-19 affects the female reproductive system. Our objective in this review is to enumerate, illustrate and categorize the effects of COVID-19 on the female reproductive system, including the ovaries, uterus, and hormonal profiles. We tried to bring forth the possible impact COVID-19 may have caused from the current literature and surveys published in various scientific reports and peer reviewed journal articles. The effects on oocyte maturation, oxidative stress, which causes chromosomal instability and apoptosis in ovaries, in vitro fertilization cycle, high-quality embryos, premature ovarian insufficiency, ovarian vein thrombosis, hypercoagulable state, women’s menstrual cycle, the hypothalamus-pituitary-ovary axis, and sex hormones, including estrogen, progesterone, and the anti- Müllerian hormone, are circled around here. The COVID-19 pandemic has significantly impacted the health of women. The scientific community encourages the development of recommendations for specialized care for women and strategies to prevent and respond to violence during and after the COVID-19 pandemic.

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Published

2024-01-29

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Section

Review Articles