Periodontal disease and pregnancy outcome in low-risk pregnant women

Authors

  • Prerna Anadure Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Ramaiah Medical College and Hospitals, Bangalore, Karnataka, India https://orcid.org/0009-0007-2739-8732
  • Nandini Gopalakrishna Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Ramaiah Medical College and Hospitals, Bangalore, Karnataka, India
  • Ashwini Department of Dental Sciences, Ramaiah Institute of Dental Sciences, Bangalore, Karnataka, India https://orcid.org/0000-0002-9861-7871
  • Shashank Hiremath Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Ramaiah Medical College and Hospitals, Bangalore, Karnataka, India https://orcid.org/0009-0004-3051-0543

DOI:

https://doi.org/10.18203/2320-1770.ijrcog20240657

Keywords:

Periodontal disease, Preterm, Low birth weight

Abstract

Background: Preterm delivery is an important cause of neonatal morbidity and mortality. Various infections in the pregnant mother may play a role. Periodontal disease in pregnancy is associated with preterm, low birth weight and small for gestational age neonates. The objective of this study was to correlate the association between periodontal disease and pregnancy outcome in low-risk pregnant women.

Methods: This was a prospective observational study from November 2019 to May 2021 at Ramaiah medical college and hospitals, Bengaluru. All pregnant women with gestational age <32 weeks and without any risk factors receiving antenatal care at Ramaiah hospitals were included.

Results: The study included 109 pregnant women without any risk factors. Periodontitis was found in 50.45%. The Plaque Index mean was 1.237 in cases and 0.844 in controls and was significant. Mean gingival index of cases was 1.282 and of control was 0.913. Nearly 94.5% of cases were having gingivitis and only 24.1% were having gingivitis in controls. The difference was significant. Preterm delivery was seen in 63.6% of cases and in 7.4% of controls which was significant. The birth weight of newborns was <2.5 kg in 69.1% in cases and 9.3% in controls which was significant.

Conclusions: Periodontal disease in pregnancy is an important risk factor for preterm delivery and low birth weight. Periodontal disease can be diagnosed by simple oral examination and can be treated. Early treatment in pregnancy leads to a successful outcome.

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Published

2024-03-05

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Original Research Articles