Exploring societal and environmental influences on decreasing menarcheal age: a comprehensive review


  • Ipsita Mohapatra Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, AIIMS Bhubaneswar, Odisha, India
  • Subha Ranjan Samantaray Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, AIIMS Kalyani, West Bengal, India https://orcid.org/0000-0001-7448-6689




Menarche, Environmental, Psychosocial, Socioeconomic status, Genetic, Pubertal maturation


Menarche typically occurs between the ages of 10 and 16 years, although the timing can vary widely among individuals and populations due to genetic, environmental, and socioeconomic factors. The onset of menstruation reflects the complex interplay between biological, psychosocial, and environmental factors that influence pubertal development. Environmental factors such as nutrition, exposure to endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs), and socioeconomic status (SES) play critical roles in determining menarcheal age. Psychosocial factors such as stress, family dynamics, and cultural norms also influence menarcheal age. This narrative review tries to explore the factors responsible for decreasing menarcheal age.


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