Ectopic pregnancy: a comprehensive analysis of risk factors and management


  • Dinesh Pal Yadav Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Umaid Hospital, Dr. S.N. Medical College, Jodhpur, Rajasthan, India
  • Indra Bhati Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Umaid Hospital, Dr. S.N. Medical College, Jodhpur, Rajasthan, India
  • Balgopal Singh Bhati Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Umaid Hospital, Dr. S.N. Medical College, Jodhpur, Rajasthan, India



Ectopic pregnancy, Pelvic inflammatory disease, Salpingectomy


Background: Ectopic pregnancy is the most life threatening emergency in pregnancy leading to maternal death. Ectopic pregnancy jeopardizes the wish of attainment of motherhood also. Increase in incidence of pelvic inflammatory disease (PID), previous history of D and C and abortion, previous abdominal surgeries and use of assisted reproductive techniques are the various risk factors for ectopic pregnancy. The objective of this study was to assess the demographic profile, risk factors, clinical presentation and surgical management of ectopic pregnancy at a tertiary care centre.

Methods: A prospective, longitudinal and observational study was conducted in the department of obstetrics and gynaecology, Umaid Hospital, Dr. SN Medical College, Jodhpur during a period of one year from October 2014 to September 2015. 80 cases of ectopic pregnancy admitted in the hospital were analyzed in terms of demographic profile, risk factors, clinical presentation, management, morbidity, mortality. Finally all collected material and data were analyzed statistically to draw various informative conclusions.

Results: Most common age and parity affected by ectopic pregnancy were 21-30 years (63.75%) and para 1-3 (72.50%) respectively. No age and parity were immune to ectopic pregnancy. More than one clinical feature was present in most of the patients. Most common site of ectopic pregnancy was ampullary region (51.25%) of the tube. Salpingectomy was the most common surgical procedure performed (75%). Few patients had more than one complication. 29 cases had no complication. No maternal mortality occurred during this period. Around 50% women received blood transfusion.

Conclusions: Ectopic pregnancy is a life-threatening condition occurring in women all over the world. As the incidence of ectopic pregnancy increases, ways and means have to be found to reduce the associated morbidity and mortality and to preserve future fertility.


Vichnin, Michelle. Ectopic pregnancy in adolescents. Current Opinion in Obstetrics and Gynecology. 2008;20(5):475-8.

National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence. Ectopic pregnancy and miscarriage: diagnosis and initial management in early pregnancy of ectopic pregnancy and miscarriage. December 2012. Available at

Ankum WM, Mol BW, Van der Veen F, Bossuyt PM. Risk factors for ectopic pregnancy: a metaanalysis. Fertil Steril. 1996;65(6):1093-9.

Mol BW, Lijmer JG, Ankum WM, van der Veen F, Bossuyt PM. The accuracy of single serum progesterone measurement in the diagnosis of ectopic pregnancy: a meta-analysis. Hum Reprod. 1998;13(11):3220-7.

Farquhar CM. Ectopic pregnancy. Lancet. 2005;366(9485):583-91.

Mandelkara, Krishna UR, Varkey A. Ectopic pregnancy and fertility control. J Obstet Gynecol Ind. 1990;40:421-4.

Vyas PS, Vaidya P. Epidemiology, diagnosis and management of ectopic pregnancy- an analysis of 196 cases. Bombay hospital journal. 2000;42(3):458-65.

Panti A, Ikechukwu NE, Lukman OO, Yakubu A, Egondu SC, Tanko BA. Ectopic pregnancy at Usmanu Danfodiyo University teaching hospital Sokoto: a ten year review. Annals of Nigerian Medicine. 2012;6(2):87-91.

Rakhi, Mital PL, Hooja N, Agarwal A, Makkar P, Andleeb F. Ectopic pregnancy: a devastating catastrophe. Scholars Journal of Applied Medical Sciences (SJAMS) Sch J App Med Sci. 2014;2(3A):903-7.

Pendse V. Ectopic pregnancy-a review of 110 cases. J Obstet Gynecol Ind. 1981;31:100-5.

Jophy R, Thomas A, Mhaskar A. Ectopic pregnancy - 5 year experience. J Obstet Gynecol Ind. 2002;52:55-8.

Majhi AK, Roy N, Karmakar KS, Banerjee PK. Ectopic pregnancy- an analysis of 180 cases. J Indian Med Assoc. 2007;105(6):308-12.

Gupta U, Sharma P. Ectopic pregnancy-a prospective analysis of 100 cases. J Obstet Gynecol Ind. 1992;42:597-600.

Igwegbe AO, Eleje GU, Okpala BC. An appraisal of the management of ectopic pregnancy in a Nigerian tertiary hospital. Ann Med Health Sci Res. 2013;3(2):166-70.

Choudhary NN, ROY. A study of 158 cases of Ectopic pregnancy. J Obst Gynecol Ind. 1968;18:364-9.






Original Research Articles