A study to assess cardiac diseases in pregnancy and pregnancy outcome

Sushma Gore, Shrikant Warade, Roocha Bramhapurikar


Background: Heart disease has a significant impact on fetal and maternal health during pregnancy, labor and delivery. In India and other developing countries, rheumatic heart disease is most common. Cardiac disorders are observed in approximately 1% of pregnancies; they account for morbidity and mortality rates. The objective of the study was to analyze the effect of cardiac diseases on maternal and fetal outcome.

Methods: Hospital based cohort study was done for a period of 5 years. All pregnant women with cardiac disease were the study participants. Total numbers of women with cardiac disease were 390.

Results: It was observed that majority of the study participants were suffering with mitral stenois (30%), followed by mitral regurgitation (25%) and mitral strenosis and regurgitation (12%). Very few women died because of certain complications, atrial fibrillation (1%), congestive cardiac failure (1%) and pulmonary embolism (1%). The overall perinatal mortality was found to be 4% in the present study.

Conclusions: Proper screening of the pregnant women to rule out any cardiac disease is required. If timely intervention are taken to treat the pregnant women with cardiac disease the morbidity and mortality in mother and foetus can be prevented to a great extent.


Pregnancy, Heart disease, Mitral stenosis

Full Text:



Cunnigham FG, Leveno KJ, Bloom SJ, Hauth JC, Rouse DJ, Spong CY. Williams: Obstetrics. 23rd edition. United States. McGraw-Hill. Medical Publishing Division. 2010:958.

Clark SL. Cardiac disease in pregnancy. Obstet Gynaecol Clin North Am. 1991;18:237-56.

Bagde ND, Madhuri N. Clinical profile and obstetric outcome in pregnancies complicated by heart disease: a five year Indian rural experience. Int J Reprod Contracept Obstet Gynecol. 2013;2(1):52-7.

Fernando A, Daftary SN, Bhide AG. Practical guide to high-risk pregnancy and delivery a south Asian perspective. 3rd edition. Elsevier. Elsevier India Private Limited. 2011:506.

Zagrosek VR. The task force on the management of cardiovascular diseases during pregnancy of the european society of cardiology (ESC). European Heart Journal. 2011;32:3147-97.

Poppas A, Shroff SG, Claudia C, Korcarz JU, David HS, Marshall BD. Serial assessment of the cardiovascular system in normal pregnancy. role of arterial compliance and pulsatile arterial load. Circulation. 1997;95:2407-15.

Dutta DC. Heart disease in pregnancy in Konar H (Eds). Text book of Obstetrics; 4th edition;1998:293-298.

Sawhney H, Aggarwal N, Suri V, Vasishta K, Sharma Y, Grover A. Maternal and perinatal outcome in rheumatic heart disease. Int J Gynaecol Obstet. 2003;80:9-14.

Davies GA, Herbert WN. Assessment and management of cardiac disease in pregnancy. J Obstet Gynaecol Can. 2007;29(4):331-6.

Maqueda GI. Practice guideline of Spanish society of cardiology for the management of cardiac disease in pregnancy. Rev Esp Cardiol. 2000;53:1474-95.

Scirica BM, Ogara PT. Valvular heart disease in pregnancy. Curr Cardiol Rep. 2006;8:83-9.

Samuel C, Siu MD. Adverse neonatal and cardiac outcomes are more common in pregnant women with cardiac disease. Circulation. 2002;105:2179.

Ghuge SH, Patil VV, Latti RG, Thorat KD. A comparative study of cardiovascular sympathetic activity in three trimesters of pregnancy. Pravara Med Rev. 2011;3(1):19-23.

Koregol M, Mahale N, Nayak R, Bhandary K. Maternal and perinatal outcomes of pregnancies complicated by cardiac disease. Turkish German Gynecol Assoc. 2009;10:30-4.

Hiralal K, Chaudhuri S. Pregnancy complicated by maternal heart disease: a review of 281 Women. J Obstetrics Gynecology. 2012;62(3):301-6.

Puri S, Bharti A, Puri S, Mohan B, Bindal V, Verma S. Maternal heart disease and pregnancy outcomes. JK Sci J. 2013;15(1):7-10.

Nayak RG, Patil SK, Laddad MM. Pregnancy with heart disease outcome. Int J Recent Trends Sci Tech. 2014;11(2):169-72.