Hypothyroidism and pregnancy. Situation in Latvia

Anna Abramova, Ramona Galsone


The thyroid gland is the first of the body's endocrine glands to develop, on approximately the 24th day or 3-4 weeks of gestation, but at around 10-12 weeks the thyroid begins to function on its own. Thyroid hormones are involved in regulation of vital body function. In general normal development, growth and reproduction cannot occur without them. The normal function of thyroid gland is predictor to normal pregnancy outcome and foetus development. It is important to know how many women have hypothyroidism and what kind of treatment they receive. Author selected and made retrospective analysis of women with hypothyroidism maternity cases from 2010 to 2011 year. Data compared to the control group, which includes women without hypothyroidism. 160 histories of childbirth of pregnant women with hypothyroidism were summarised and included into hypothyroidism group and 308 histories of childbirth in control group. Preeclampsia incidence in hypothyroidism group is 6.9%, and 2.6% in the control group. The incidence of preeclampsia statistically differs in both study groups. (P = 0.02642). Results of the study show that hypothyroidism does not affect the delivery type. Only 8.5% of patients in hypothyroidism group weren’t receiving L-thyroxin therapy during pregnancy. Women with hypothyroidism have preeclampsia more often than women which hasn’t hypothyroidism. Hypothyroidism does not affect the delivery type.


Hypothyroidism, Pregnancy, Latvia, Thyroid gland, L-thyroxin

Full Text:



Frithjof C. Küpper, Lucy J. Carpenter, Catherine Leblanc. In vivo speciation studies and antioxidant properties of bromine in Laminaria digitatareinforce the significance of iodine accumulation for kelps. J Experiment Botany. 2013 Apr;64(10):2653-64.

Robert M. Sargis. Thyroid gland overview. A major player in regulating your metabolism, 23 March 2015. Available at: Accessed 27 December 2015.

Louise Andersson. Embryonic origin and development of thyroid progenitor cells. In: Louise Andersson, eds. Abstract. Göteborg: University of Gothenburg; 2010: 10-15.

Philip E Zapanta. Embryology of the thyroid and parathyroids, 14 December 2014. Available at: Accessed 04 March 2015.

Donna D’Souza. Thyroid ima artery, 03 June 2014. Available at: Accessed 26 February 2015.

Lewis Braverman, Linda Barbour. Pregnancy and thyroid disease, 23 February 2012. Available at: Accessed 9 April 2015.

American Thyroid Association. Thyroid disease and pregnancy, 2012 Available at: Accessed 11 April 2015.

University of Connecticut Health Center. Anatomy of the thyroid, 2015. Available at: Accessed 04 March 2015.

Endocrine Surgery Centre. Anatomy of the thyroid gland. The blood supply, 2015. Available at: Accessed 26 February 2015.

Dominique Dorion. Thyroid anatomy, 06 March 2013 Available at: Accessed 04 March 2015.

Françoise Miot, Corinne Dupuy, Jacques Dumont. Thyroid hormone synthesis and secretion, 26 December 2012. Available at: Accessed 09 March 2015.

Evans JV. University of New England. Iodine and the thyroid gland. Mohair newsletter technical, September 1998. Volume 7. Available at: Accessed 17 April 2015.

The Endocrine Society. Smoking during pregnancy may impair thyroid function of mom and fetus, 17 January 2009. Available at: Accessed 7 April 2015.

Kris Poppe, Brigitte Velkeniers, Daniel Glinoer. Thyroid disease and female reproduction. J Clin Endocrinol. 2000;66(3):309-21.

Dotun A. Ogunyemi, George T. Griffing. Autoimmune thyroid disease and pregnancy, 12 August 2014. Available at: Accessed 25 March 2015.

Kristīne Ducena. Vairogdziedzera slimības un grūtniecība, 2015. Available at: Accessed 8 April 2015.

Gene C. Ness, Tunekazu Takahashi. Thyroid hormones on amino acid and protein metabolism. I. Concentration and composition of free amino acids in blood plasma of the rat. Endocrinology. 1969 Dec;85(6):1166-71.

Juan Bernal. Thyroid hormones in brain development and function, 17 December 2012. Available at: Accessed 10 April 2015.

Chan S, Kilby MD. Thyroid hormone and central nervous system development. J Endocrinol. 2000;165:1-8.

Graham R. Williams. Actions of thyroid hormones in bone. Polish J Endocrinol. 2009;50(5):380-6.

Dace Rezeberga. Vitamins, supplements and women health, 08 February 2014. Available at: Accessed 17 March 2015.

Dana Trentini. What every pregnant woman needs to know about hypothyroidism, 8 October 2012. Available at: Accessed 10 April 2015.

Dace Rezeberga. Recommendations for use of iodine Latvian, 15 January 2015. Available at: Accessed 27 February 2015.

Serafino Fazio, Emiliano A. Palmeri, Gaetano Lombardi, Biondi B. Effects of thyroid hormone on the cardiovascular system. Recent Prog Horm Res. 2004;59:31-50.

Fryhofer A. Guidelines for thyroid disease in pregnancy: key points, 9 November 2011. Available at: Accessed 15 April 2015.

Rodica Tudosa, Irina Horhoianu, Stela Mateescu. Maternal and fetal complications of the hypothyroidism-related pregnancy. J Maedica. 2010 Apr;5(2):116-23.

Alex Stagnaro-Green. Maternal thyroid disease and preterm delivery. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2009 Jan;94(1):21-5.

Juneo F. Silva, Paula N. Vidigal, Daniele D. Galvão. Fetal growth restriction in hypothyroidism is associated with changes in proliferative activity, apoptosis and vascularisation of the placenta. J Reprod Fertil Devel. 2012 Mar;24(7):923-31.

Julie M. Gentile. Study looks at link between anemia and hypothyroidism, 2015. Available at: Accessed 19 March 2015.

Health Library. Thyroid disorders in women. Johns Hopkins medicine, 2015. Available at:,P00437/. Accessed 9 April 2015.

Solomon A. Berson, Rosalyn S. Yalow. The iodide trapping and binding functions of the thyroid. J Clin Invest. 1955 Feb;34(2):186-204.

Bowen R. Mechanism of action and physiologic effects of thyroid hormones, July 2010. Available at: Accessed 25 March 2015.

Douglas S. Ross. Patient information: hypothyroidism, 01 February 2015. Available at: Accessed 10 February 2015.