A retrospective study of 296 cases of intra uterine fetal deaths at a tertiary care centre

Neetu Singh, Kiran Pandey, Neena Gupta, A K Arya, Charu Pratap, Reshika Naik

Abstract


Background: To identify the risk factors and to streamline preventive and management protocols for IUD.

Methods: This was a retrospective study from January 2011 to December 2012 which was conducted at G.S.V.M. Medical College, Kanpur. IUD was defined as fetal death beyond 20 weeks of gestation and/or birth weight > 500g. Maternal and fetal records were analysed. Mode of delivery and associated complications were studied.

Results: Total number of deliveries were 7310.Incidence of IUD at our centre was 40 per 1000. 55.73% were antepartum and 11.06% were intra partum. In 33.44% cases, no causes were identified. Among the identifiable causes, very severe anemia (16.55%) and hypertensive disorders (10.81%) were most common followed by placental causes (12.16%).Congenital malformations were responsible for 9.45% cases .Induction was done in 151 patients,111 patients had spontaneous onset of labour and caesarean section was done in 34 patients. The most devastating complication of IUD was DIC found in 14 patients (3.71%).

Conclusions: The present study is an effort to compile a profile of maternal, fetal and placental causes culminating to IUD at our centre. This emphasizes the importance of proper antenatal care and identification of risk factors and its treatment. Institutional deliveries should be promoted to prevent intrapartum fetal deaths .A substantial number of IUD are still labeled as unexplained, hence cannot be prevented. Decrease in the incidence of IUD would significantly reduce the perinatal mortality.


Keywords


Intrauterine fetal death (IUD), Unexplained fetal death, Disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC)

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