Acute pelvic inflammatory disease in a sub-Saharan country: a cross sectional descriptive study
Keywords:Acute pelvic inflammatory disease, Patients’ sociodemographic profile, Clinical presentation, Microorganisms isolated
Background: Acute Pelvic Inflammatory Disease (PID) can lead to tubal damage resulting in tubal infertility, ectopic pregnancy and chronic pelvic pain. This study aimed at identifying the sociodemographic profile and clinical presentation of women diagnosed with acute PID, as well as the microorganisms isolated.
Methods: This cross-sectional descriptive study was carried out between October 1st, 2013 and March 31st, 2014 in the University Teaching Hospital and the Central Hospital, both of Yaoundé (Cameroon). Seventy women diagnosed with acute PID were recruited. The main variables recorded were: maternal age, occupation, marital status, number of current sexual partners, the clinical presentation at admission and the microorganisms identified. Data were analyzed using SPSS 20.0.
Results: Mean maternal age was 29.0 ± 7.7 years. Students were more represented (37.1%), 58.6% were single, 64.3% had ≥2 sexual partners. The most frequent signs and symptoms were abnormal vaginal discharge (100%), adnexal tenderness (97.1%), cervical motion tenderness (94.3%) and fever ≥38.3°C (82.9%). No microorganism was isolated in 20% of cases, especially among women who underwent intra-uterine procedures. Among the cases where microorganisms were isolated, the most frequent germs were genital tract mycoplasmas (54.3%) and Chlamydia trachomatis (37.1%).
Conclusions: Acute PID is common among young, single women with multiple sexual partners, who should be regularly screened for the various sexually transmissible infections. The micro-organisms frequently responsible for acute PID were genital tract mycoplasmas, whose identification should be included among the routine tests done to women with acute PID. Cases of acute PID due to intra-uterine procedures reminds us that adequate asepsis should be observed during these procedures.
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