Application of ultrasonography in female infertility: a comprehensive review

Tochukwu C. Okeke, Kennedy K. Agwuna, Cyril C. Ezenyeaku, Lawrence C. Ikeako


The quest for detailed evaluation of the uterus, fallopian tubes, and ovaries that is radiation free, inexpensive, readily available, non-invasive, relatively less time consuming and easily repeatable in female infertility has resulted in further studies. However, ultrasonography (US) remains the first line indispensable tool for gynecologic workup, monitoring and treating infertility. The aim is to review the current knowledge regarding the application of ultrasonography in female infertility. This was a descriptive review of ultrasonography in female infertility. We searched several databases (Medline, Google scholar, PubMed) with keywords “ultrasonography and female infertility”, “evaluation of female infertility”, “role of ultrasonography in female infertility:, and imaging in female infertility”. Female infertility is multifactorial in origin. Ultrasonography is the most widely used imaging in gynecology and has revolutionized the management of female infertility worldwide. The recognition, evaluation and treatment of female infertility are complicated, complex, stressful and emotionally devastating for most couples. The couple’s emotional state should be supportive, informative and well tolerated. Female infertility is an immense stress to couples, families and relatives worldwide. The causes are multifactorial in origin with both congenital and acquired problems of the uterus, fallopian tubes and ovaries. Ultrasound plays an important role in female infertility workup with hysterosalpingography (HSG), sonohysterography (Sono-HSG) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), each playing a complimentary role in the screening, diagnosis and/or management of female infertility.


Female Infertility, Ultrasonography, HSG, Sono-HSG, MRI

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