A comparative study of the effect of body mass index on pregnancy outcomes in normal and overweight women
Keywords:Overweight, Obesity, Pregnancy
Background: Maternal obesity has been reported as a risk factor for various antepartum, intrapartum, postpartum and neonatal complications. Increasing rates of overweight among pregnant women are a significant public health concern with various implications for prenatal care and supervision of delivery. Therefore, the present study is to determine the adverse materno-fetal outcome in primigravid overweight and obese women delivering singleton babies.
Methods: A prospective comparative study was conducted for a year at IMCH, Medical College, Calicut. Primigravid women with a singleton uncomplicated pregnancy with cephalic presentation at ≥37 weeks of gestation with accurate information regarding height and weight recorded at the booking visit were included in the study. Comparisons were made between 100 women with BMI >25 and 200 women with BMI 18.5-24.9. Statistical analysis was done using SPSS version 16.0. Data was analysed by Pearson Chi square test and Fisher’s exact test.
Results: Overweight mothers are at increased risk quoted as relative risk (RR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) of adverse materno-fetal outcomes. Gestational hypertension RR 2.39 (CI 1.65-3.47), Gestational diabetes RR 2.67(CI 0.95-7.48), induction of labour RR 2.35 (CI 1.4-3.95), Cesarean section RR 5.73 (CI 3.76-8.73), macrosomia RR 14 (CI 1.75-112.23), NICU admissions RR 4.51(CI 2.61-7.84),perineal lacerations RR 4.72 (CI 1.15-20.4), wound infection RR 2.97 (CI 1.06-8.41), and prolonged hospital stay.
Conclusions: It is clearly evident from the study that maternal overweight and obesity is associated with adverse materno-fetal outcome.
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