Role of angiogenic factors in recurrent pregnancy loss
Keywords:Recurrent miscarriage (RM), Angiogenesis, VEGF, NK cell
Women with recurrent miscarriage (RM) often have abnormal NK cell activity. Uterine NK cells produce angiogenic factors and various interleukins. Human endometrium that expresses a variety of angiogenic growth factors and cytokines (NK-cell) may play a critical role in the abnormal endometrial angiogenesis which affect both conception and fetal development. Women with RM also have intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) after conception. It has been shown 12-15% of women in their initial stage of pregnancies miscarry. The occurrence of miscarriage is known as having three or more continues miscarriage. This percentage is from 0.3 to 0.8% of all diagnosed pregnancies. Recurrent miscarriages have multiple aetiology. In this review article we will discuss a number of factors that may link to pregnancy complication. We focus on endometrial angiogenesis, vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGF-A), human endothelium expresses messenger ribonucleic acids (mRNA) encoding VEGF-C, placenta growth factor (PlGF). The angiopoietins 1,2 and receptor for VEGF-A, VEGF-C, PIGF. The role of NK-cell, Interleukin-2 (IL-2) and IL-15 that may lead to up-regulation of VEGF-C and Ang-2 in secretory endometrium.
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