A clinical study of prevalence of gestational diabetes mellitus and associated risk factors at a tertiary care centre in Karnataka, India


  • Shridevi A. S. Department of Obstetrics & Gynaecology, SS Institute of Medical sciences and Research Centre, Davangere, Karnataka, India
  • Prema Prabhudev Department of Obstetrics & Gynaecology, SS Institute of Medical sciences and Research Centre, Davangere, Karnataka, India
  • Madhusoodana R. Bhovi Department of Obstetrics & Gynaecology, SS Institute of Medical sciences and Research Centre, Davangere, Karnataka, India




Gestational diabetes mellitus, Oral glucose tolerance test, Diabetes in pregnancy study group India


Background: Women with GDM are at increased risk for adverse obstetric and perinatal outcome .This study was undertaken to evaluate the prevalence of GDM using Diabetes in pregnancy study group India (DIPSI) criteria and associated risk factors in pregnant women.

Methods: Universal screening for GDM was done in 200 pregnant women with estimated gestational age between 14 -18 weeks. They were given 75 gm oral glucose irrespective of meals. Diagnosis of GDM was made if 2 hr plasma glucose was ≥140, If plasma glucose is <140 then the test is repeated at 24-28 weeks. If normal, then the test is repeated at 32 weeks. If plasma glucose is <140 mg at 32 weeks, then they are classified as non –GDM group. Prevalence of risk factors like age ≥25, BMI ≥25, family history of DM, bad obstetric history, history of GDM and macrosomia were studied in GDM and non GDM group and results are statistically analysed.

Results: The prevalence in this study was 11.5%. The prevalence was more in women with advanced age, high BMI, positive family history of DM, past history of GDM and macrosomia.

Conclusions: The prevalence of GDM was found to be 11.5 % and its association with risk factors found to be significant. DIPSI diagnostic procedure is a simple, cost effective and evidence based test.


Ghio A, Seghieri G, Lencioni C, Anichini R, Bertolotto A, De Bellis A, et al. 1- hour OGTT plasma glucose as a marker of progressive deterioration of insulin secretion and action in pregnant women. International Journal of Endocrinology. 2012;Article ID 460509:5 pages.

Seshiah V, Das AK, Balaji V, Joshi SR, Parikh MN, Gupta S. Diabetes in Pregnancy Study Group. Gestational diabetes mellitus guidelines. J Assoc Physicians India. 2006;54:622-8.

Davey RX, Hamblin PS. Selective versus universal screening for gestational diabetes mellitus: An evaluation of predictive risk factors. Med J Aust. 2001;174:118-21.

Otolorin EO, Famuyiwa OO, Bella AF, Dawodu AH, Adelusi B. Reproductive performance following active management of diabetic pregnancies at the university college hospital, Ibadan, Nigeria. Afr J Med Med Sci. 1985;14:155-60.

Seshiah V, Sahay BK, Das AK, Shah S, Banerjee S, Rao PV, et al. Gestational diabetes mellitus–Indian guidelines. J Indian Med Assoc. 2009;107:799-802,804-06.

Seshiah V, Balaji V, Balaji MS, Sanjeevi CB, Green A. Gestational diabetes mellitus in India. J Assoc Phys India. 2004;52:707-11.

Seshiah V, Balaji V, Balaji MS. Prevalence of gestational diabetes mellitus in south India (Tamil Nadu) – a community based study. J Assoc Physicians India. 2008;56:329-33.

Kalra P, Kachhwaha CP, Singh HV. Prevalence of gestational diabetes mellitus and its outcome in western Rajasthan. Indian J Endocr Metab. 2013;17:677-80.

Rajesh R, Yogesh Y, Smiti N, Meena R. Prevalence of gestational diabetes mellitus and associated risk factors at a tertiary care hospital in Haryana- Indian J Med Res. 2013:728-33.

Jovanovic L, Pettitt DJ. Gestational diabetes mellitus. JAMA. 2001;286:2516-8.

Shrestha A, Chawla CD. The glucose challenge test for screening of gestational diabetes. Katmandu Univ Med J. 2011;34(2):22-6.

Cosson E. Screening and insulin sensitivity in gestational diabetes. Abstract volume of the 40th Annual Meeting of the EASD. 2004:A350.

Dornhorst A, Paterson CM, Nicholls JS. High prevalence of gestational diabetes in women from ethnic minority groups. Diabet Med. 1992;9(9):539-53.

O‟Sullivan JB, Mahan CM. Criteria for oral glucose tolerance in pregnancy. Diabetes. 1964;13:278-85.

Government of India, Ministry of Health and Family welfare, Nirman Bhavan, New Delhi (DO no. M-12015/93/2011-MCH/2011).

John A. Lott and Kathie Turner. Evaluation of Trinder‟s glucose oxidase method for measuring glucose in serum and urine. Clinical Biochemistry, Penguin books. 1975:1754-60.

Anjalakshi C, Balaji V, Balaji MS, Ashalatha S, Suganthi S, Arthi T, et al. A single test procedure to diagnose gestational diabetes mellitus, Acta Diabetol. 2009;46:51-4.

Hanna FW, Peter SJR. Screening of gestational diabetes: Past, present and future. Diabet Med. 2002;19:351-8.

American Diabetes Association. Gestational diabetes mellitus. Diabetic care. 2003;27:88-90.

Seshiah V, Balaji V, Madhuri S Balaji, Aruna Sekar, Sanjeevi CB, Anders Green One step procedure for screening and diagnosisof gestational diabetes mellitus. J Obstet Gynecol Ind. 2005;55:525-29.

Agrawal S, Gupta AN. Gestational Diabetes. J Association Physicians of India. 1982;30:203.

Narendra J, Muni Choodeppa C, Gurudas A, Ramprasad AV, Medha VT, Vijalakashmi N, et al. Prevalence of glucose intolerance during pregnancy. Int J Diabetes Dev Ctries. 1991;11:2-4.

Magee S, Walden CE, Benedetti TJ, Knopp RH. Influence of diagnostic criteria on the incidence of gestational diabetes and perinatal morbidity. JAMA. 1993;269:609-15.

de Aguiar LG, de Matos HJ, Gomes MB. Could fasting plasma glucose be used for screening high-risk outpatients for gestational diabetes mellitus? Diabetes Care. 2001;24:954-5.

Nahum GG, Wilson SB, Stanislaw H. Early-pregnancy glucose screening for gestational diabetes mellitus. J Reprod Med. 2002;47:656-62.

Seshiah V, Balaji V, Balaji MS, Panneerselvam A. Early screening for gestational diabetes. Diabetes. 2006;55(suppl 1):2619-PO.

Jovanovic L, Peterson CM. Screening for gestational diabetes. Optimum timing and criteria for retesting. Diabetes. 1985;34(Suppl 2):21-3.

Gómez HL, Martínez ML, Rodríguez ZM. Clinical and epidemiological profile of diabetes mellitus in pregnancy, Isle of youth, 2008. MEDICC Rev. 2011;13:29-34.

Kim C, Lui T, Val dez R, Beckles GL. Does frank diabetes in first degree relatives of a pregnant womanaffect the likely hood of her developing gestational diabetes or non-gestational diabetes? Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2009;201:576,ei-6.

Shreekanthan K, Belicita A, Rajendran K, Vijayakumar A. Prevalence of Gestational diabetes mellitus in a medical college in South India:A pilot study. Indian Journal of Clinical Practice. 2014;25(4):342-7.






Original Research Articles