DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.18203/2320-1770.ijrcog20171388

A study of incidence, risk factors, clinical profile and management of 50 cases of ectopic pregnancy in a tertiary care teaching hospital

G. Ganitha, G. Anuradha

Abstract


Background: Ectopic pregnancy is a challenging and life-threatening emergency, which can cause significant maternal morbidity and mortality. The present study aims at determining the incidence, risk factors, clinical features, diagnosis, management and outcome of ectopic pregnancies in a tertiary care teaching hospital.

Methods: This was a prospective study of 50 cases of ectopic pregnancies admitted to the Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology at a tertiary care teaching hospital from August 2012 to September 2013. Relevant data of the 50 patients was tabulated and descriptive analysis was carried out.

Results: The incidence of ectopic pregnancy was 6.3 per 1000 deliveries. Majority of the patients (82%) belonged to 20-30 yrs age group. 70% of the women were multiparous. The commonest site of ectopic pregnancy was fallopian tube (92 %). Past history of pelvic inflammatory disease (40%), abortions (20%), abdominopelvic surgery (14%) and IUCD usage (12%) were among the important risk factors identified. 20% of the patients had no identifiable risk factor. The classical triad of amenorrhea, bleeding per vaginum and abdominal pain was seen in 56 % of the study population. The most important signs which guided the diagnosis of ectopic pregnancy were cervical excitation pain (74%), abdominal tenderness (72%), adnexal mass or fullness (68%) and tenderness in the fornix (68%). Clinical presentation, urinary pregnancy test, culdocentesis and ultrasound were the diagnostic tools used for diagnosis of ectopic pregnancy. The incidence of ruptured ectopic pregnancy was 86%. Majority of the patients underwent salpingectomy (96%). There was no maternal mortality in our study.

Conclusions: Early diagnosis, timely referral, improved access to health care, aggressive management and improvement of blood bank facilities can reduce the maternal morbidity and mortality associated with ectopic pregnancy.


Keywords


Ectopic pregnancy, Pelvic inflammatory disease, Risk factors, Salpingectomy, Tubal pregnancy

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