A study of birth defects in a tertiary care teaching hospital at Chennai, India


  • Mangalageetha Amirthalingam Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Thoothukudi Medical College, Thoothukudi, Tamil Nadu, India
  • Padmalatha Dakshnamurthy Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Government Kilpauk Medical College Hospital, Kilpauk, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
  • Vinodhini Shanmugham Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Government Kilpauk Medical College Hospital, Kilpauk, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India




Advanced maternal age, Birth defects, Consanguinity, Maternal diabetes


Background: The Congenital anomalies were estimated to be the fifth largest cause of neonatal deaths in India. The purpose of our study was to determine the proportion and pattern of congenital anomalies and their association with risk factors like maternal diabetes, advanced maternal age and consanguinity among the babies born in a tertiary care teaching hospital in Chennai.

Methods: This study is a cross sectional descriptive study where all the newborns including still born delivered with the presence of congenital anomalies and those fetuses terminated due to detection of presence of congenital anomalies were analyzed. The study was done at the OBG department in a tertiary care center for a period of one year 1st June 2015 to 31st May 2016.

Results: The overall incidence of birth defects were 2.36%, of which musculo skeletal defects (18.88%) were commonly found. There was a definite correlation of risk factors with consanguinity showing an incidence of 1.5 times the overall incidence of birth defects (3.54%) and maternal diabetes mellitus was 6 times the total incidence (15.3%). The correlation between the incidence of birth defects and advanced maternal age was not statistically significant in our study.

Conclusions: The study depicts the risk of occurrence of congenital anomalies in the presence of maternal diabetes and in consanguineous marriage and emphasizes on the necessity of adequate screening like first trimester and second trimester ultrasonogram for the early detection of anomalies in the fetus especially if these risk factors are present in the mother.


World Health Organisation. Congenital anomalies. Fact sheets. Available at www.who.int/mediacentre/factsheets/fs370/en/. Accessed on 10th May 2017.

Clark RD, Eteson DJ. Congenital anomalies. In Schaffer and Avery's Diseases of the Newborn WB Saunders, Philadelphia;1991:159-191.

Goravalingappa JP, Nashi HK; Congenital Anomalies in a study of 2398 consecutive births. Indian J Med Res. 1979;69:140.

Ghosh S, Bhargava SK, Bhtani R. Congenital anomalies in longitudinally studied birth cohort in a urban community. Indian J Med Res. 1985;82:427.

Mishra PC, Baveja R. Congenital anomalies in New borns: a prospective study. Indian Pediatr. 1989;26:97.

Mohanty C. Congenital anomalies in new born. A study of 10,874 consecutive birth. J Anatomy Soc India. 1989;38:2.

Shah K, Pensi CA. Study of incidence of congenital anomalies in newborns. Guj Med J. 2013;68(2):97-9.

Sarkar S, Patra C, Dasgupta MK, Nayek K, Karmakar PR. Prevalence of congenital anomalies in neonates and associated risk factors in a tertiary care hospital in eastern India. J Clin Neonatol. 2013;2(3):131.

Hudgins L, Cassidy SB. Congenital anomalies. In: Martin RJ, Fanaroff AA, Walsh MC, editors. Neonatal-Perinatal Medicine. 8th ed. Philadelphia: Mosby-Elsevier; 2006:561-81.

Mathur BC, Karan S, Vijaya Devi KK. Congenital malformations in the newborn. Indian Pediatr. 1975;12:179-83.

Chen CP. Congenital malformations associated with maternal diabetes. Taiwanese J Obstet Gynecol. 2005;44(1):1-7

Suguna Bai NS, Mascarene M, Syamalan K, Nair PM. An etiological study of congenital malformation in the newborn. Indian Pediatr. 1982;19:1003-7.

Dutta V, Chaturvedi P. Congenital malformations in rural Maharashtra. Indian Pediatr. 2000;37:998-1001.






Original Research Articles