DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.18203/2320-1770.ijrcog20172589

Risk factors of ectopic pregnancy: a study in a tertiary care centre

Beera Neelima, V. G. Vanamala

Abstract


Background: Over the years, there has been a considerable rise in the incidence of ectopic pregnancy. This study was undertaken to identify the risk factors that contribute to this condition, so that immediate action can be taken so as to save the mother.

Methods: 62 women, in their first trimester of pregnancy who were diagnosed with ectopic pregnancy were included in the study. Demographic details, clinical and obstetric details were taken from all the patients. Ultrasound was performed to confirm the ectopic pregnancy.

Results: Out of the 62 patients, most of them with ectopic pregnancy were found to be in the 26-30 (40.3%) year’s age group. Smoking, whether active or passive was observed in nearly 42% of the cases. The mean gravid status among the women was 3, with 34 live births. 21 of them had induced abortions and 4 were spontaneous. PID was observed in 12 patients (19.4%), 17.7% were IUD users.

Conclusions: Risk factors such as previous ectopic pregnancy, use of contraceptives, infertility, PID, abortion as well as increased maternal age aid in the early detection of ectopic pregnancy in women resulting in proper and timely treatment.


Keywords


Ectopic pregnancy, Incidence, Risk factors

Full Text:

PDF

References


Zane SB, Kieke BA, Jr, Kendrick JS, Bruce C. Surveillance in a time of changing health care practices: Estimating ectopic pregnancy incidence in the United States. Matern Child Health J. 2002;6:227-36.

Rivillas F, Gómez JG, Jaramillo D. Embarazo ectópico. In: Rivillas F, Gómez JG, Jaramillo D, editors. Series pretest medicine obstetrics and gynecology. 1st ed. Medellín, Colombia: Editorial Universidad de Antioquia; 2001:10-12.

Shaw JL, Dey SK, Critchley HO, Horne AW. Current knowledge of the aetiology of human tubal ectopic pregnancy. Hum Reprod Update. 2010;16:432-44.

Vichnin M. Ectopic pregnancy in adolescents. Curr Opin Obstet Gynecol. 2008;20:475-8.

Walker JJ. Ectopic pregnancy. Clin Obstet Gynecol. 2007;50(1):89-99.

Bouyer J, Coste J, Shojaei T, Pouly JL, Fernandez H, Gerbaud L et al. Risk factors for ectopic pregnancy: a comprehensive analysis based on a large case-control, population-based study in France. Am J Epidemiol. 2003;157(3):185-194.

Farquhar CM. Ectopic pregnancy. Lancet. 2005;366(9485):583-91.

Marchbanks P, Annegers JF, Coulam CB, Strathy JH, Kurland LT. Risk factors for ectopic pregnancy.A population based-study. JAMA. 1988;259(12):1823-7.

Bhavna, Gupta KB, Pathania K, Jindal M, Vohra R, Ahmed M. Risk factors for ectopic pregnancy : a case control study in tertiary care centre. IOSR J Dental Med Sci.2014;13(3):23-27.

Kopani F, Rrugia A, Manoku N. Ectopic pregnancy comparison of different treatments. J Prenatal Medicine. 2010;4(2):30-34.

Anorlu RI, Oluwole A, Abudu OO, Adebajo S. Risk Factors for Ectopic Pregnancy in Lagos, Nigeria. Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand. 2005;84:184-88.

Handler A, Davis F, Ferre C, Yeko T. The relationship of smoking and ectopic pregnancy. Am J Public Health. 1989;79:1239-42.

Panchal D, Vaishnav G, Solanki K. Study of Management in patient with Ectopic Pregnancy. NJIRM. 2011;2(3):91-94.

Skjeldestad FE, Hadgu A, Eriksson N. Epidemiology of repeat ectopic pregnancy: A population-based prospective cohort study. Obstet Gynecol. 1998;91:129-35.

Moini A, Hosseini R, Jahangiri N, Shiva M, Akhoond MR. Risk factors for ectopic pregnancy: A case–control study. J Res Med Sci. 2014;19(9):844-849.

Barnhart KT, Sammel MD, Gracia CR, Chittams J, Hummel AC, Shaunik A. Risk factors for ectopic pregnancy in women with symptomatic first-trimester pregnancies. Fertil Steril. 2006;86:36-43.

Chow JM, Yonekura ML, Richwald GA, Greenland S, Sweet RL, Schachter J. The association between Chlamydia trachomatis and ectopic pregnancy. A matched-pair, case-control study. JAMA. 1990;263:3164-7.

Parashi S, Moukhah S, Ashrafi M. Main Risk Factors for Ectopic Pregnancy: A Case-Control Study in A Sample of Iranian Women. Int J Fertil Steril. 2014;8(2):147-154.

Coste J, Bouyer J, Job-Spira N. Construction of composite scales for risk assessment in epidemiology: An application to ectopic pregnancy. Am J Epidemiol. 1997;145:278-89.

Chow WH, Daling JR, Cates W Jr, Greenberg RS. Epidemiology of ectopic pregnancy. Epidemiol Rev. 1987;9:70-94.

Bouyer J, Rachou E, Germain E, Fernandez H, Coste J, Pouly JL et al. Risk factors for extrauterine pregnancy in women using an intrauterine device. Fertil Steril. 2000;74(5):899-908.

Karaer A, Avsar FA, Batioglu S. Risk factors for ectopic pregnancy: A case-control study. Aust N Z J Obstet Gynaecol. 2006;46(6):521-7

Kaplan BC, Dart RG, Moskos M, Kuligowska E, Chun B, Adel Hamid M et al. Ectopic pregnancy: Prospective study with improved diagnostic accuracy. Ann Emerg Med. 1996;28:10-7.

Maccato M, Estrada R, Hammill H, Faro S. Prevalence of active Chlamydia trachomatis infection at the time of exploratory laparotomy for ectopic pregnancy. Obstet Gynecol. 1992;79:211-3.

Kier JJ, Knudsen LB. Ectopic pregnancy subsequent to laparoscopic sterilization. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 1989;160(5 Pt 1):1202-4.