Published: 2017-07-26

PC-PNDT act: perspectives of medical undergraduates in a Sub-Himalayan state

Rajiv Kumar Gupta, Parveen Singh, Shahid Hussain, Rashmi Kumari, Bhavna Langer, Riya Gupta


Background: Sex selective abortions have grossly distorted the child sex ratio in India. Role of medical technology in declining sex ratio at birth cannot be undermined. To combat this social evil, PC-PNDT (Pre-conception Prenatal Diagnostic Test) was promulgated in 2003 by Government of India. Enhancing the knowledge of medical fraternity with focus on undergraduate students can imbibe an enduring commitment towards this predicament

Methods: The present cross-sectional study was conducted in Government Medical College of Jammu. Students of 1st year MBBS of Batch 2016-2017 were administered the pre-designed and pretested questionnaire. Information was collected regarding sex determination as well as PC-PNDT Act.

Results: 80% respondents knew about the declining sex ratio and 95% knew that sex determination is possible during pregnancy. Only 24.29% had heard about PC-PNDT Act although 95% knew that prenatal sex determination is punishable. Higher proportions of female respondents were aware of both fine and imprisonment as punishment under the act. (p<0.05). Regarding technique used for sex determination, males had better knowledge about ultrasonography than their female counterparts (p<0.05). More females would like to have male child as preferred first child (p<0.05) and 87.14% of respondents preferred that sex determination be punished more vigorously.

Conclusions: Awareness about some of the parameters about PC-PNDT Act among the medical undergraduates was poor and it would be pertinent to hold more educational sessions for them.


Medical undergraduates, PC-PNDT, Sex determination

Full Text:



Definition of the indicators of population ageing. World Population ageing 1950- 2050. UNFPA. Available from: Accessed 7 April 2017

Census of India. Gender composition 2011. Available from: Accessed 7 April 2017

Census of India. Sex composition of India. Available from:

Kanitkar T, Mistry M. Status of women in India - an interstate comparison. Indian J Soc Work. 2000;61:381-3.

Imam Z. India bans female feticide. BMJ. 1994;309:428.

Handbook of PCPNDT Act and rules with amendments. Ministry of Health and Family Welfare Government of India 2006. Available from:

Declining sex ratio-a matter of concern- India. UNICEF. Available from

Patil S, Singh V, Chavan S, Gadkari M. Knowledge and attitude regarding PCPNDT act among medical undergraduates: a study conducted in teaching institute Mumbai. Innovative J Medic Health Sci. 2014:4(2);83-5.

Sidhu TK, Kumar S, Kaur PA. Study of knowledge and attitude of medical undergraduate students regarding prenatal sex determination and female feticide. Indian J Matern Child Health. 2011;13:2-6.

Palo LB, Chauhan NS, Parvathi T, Chauhan RC. Awareness about PCPNDT act among undergraduate students of a medical college in Puducherry. Int J Reprod Contracept Obstet Gynecol 2015;4:1485-8.

Avachat S, Raut P, Zambare M, Gund D, Pundkar R. Perspectives of medical interns regarding female feticide and declining sex ratio in India. N Am J Med Sci. 2013;5(8):469-72.

KM Dhaduk. A study on doctor’s perspective on PNDT Act. Ind J Community Medic. 2009;34(2):160-1.

Nath A, Sharma N, Knowledge and attitudes of medical students and interns with regard to female feticide, Indian J Comm Medic. 2009;34:164.