A study of aetiology and prevalence of malignancy in patients with post menopausal bleeding
Keywords:Cervical carcinoma, Endometrial carcinoma, Post-menopausal bleeding
Background: Post-menopausal bleeding (PMB) is a frequent and alarming sign and exclusion of genital tract malignancy should be the primary aim of investigation. Approximately 1 in 10 women experiences this problem. Increasing time interval between menopause and onset of post-menopausal bleeding is highly indicative of malignancy. Objectives of this study were to study the various etiologies and risk factors of post-menopausal bleeding and to find the prevalence of malignant pathology in women with post-menopausal bleeding.
Methods: Prospective observational study carried out in Obstetrics and Gynecology department of SBKSMIRC (Shrimati Bhikhiben Kanjibhai Shah Medical Institute and Research Centre), Dhiraj general hospital, comprising of 150 consecutive cases of postmenopausal bleeding occurring after one year of menopause, presenting in OPD or admitted in Gynecology or emergency ward with the same complaint. Patients were assessed clinically as well as thoroughly investigated to find out exact etiology. Pap smears, tranvaginal ultrasound, fractional curettage and biopsies were done. Statistical analysis of data was done after compiling and tabulation of data. Mean±SD for age and percentages for etiologies were calculated and compared with other studies.
Results: Benign aetiology was seen in 74% of the cases, malignant aetiology in 24% which is a significant proportion of menopausal women presenting with Post-menopausal bleeding. 58% (87/150) patients were in the age group 50-59 and presented after five to ten years of menopause. Commonest benign aetiology was atrophic endometrium 25.4% and another 32.5% had functional endometrium as cause of PMB (proliferative 13.2%, hyperplasia 13.2% and secretory 6.1%). Among malignancies carcinoma cervix was the commonest, 52.7%, (12.6%) of study population followed by carcinoma endometrium, 25% (6% of total population), thus making thorough and proper evaluation of all cases of PMB mandatory to pick up malignant lesions at early stage and initiate treatment accordingly.
Conclusions: Post-menopausal bleeding has become a common complaint in gynecology OPD and considering its possible association with malignancy, even slightest amount of bleeding demands proper work up.
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