DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.18203/2320-1770.ijrcog20173446

Epidemiologic aspects of male infertility

Arunadevi Velu, Geetha Prasad

Abstract


Background: Infertility affects 10-15% of couples worldwide with rates steadily increasing in the Industrialized world, in part due to the deterioration of male reproductive health.

Methods: This study was performed in an attempt to clarify the associated factors that might play a role in group of Indian infertile men. This study was a cross – sectional descriptive study conducted in Karpaga Vinayaga Institute of Medical Sciences. The information was obtained from the men who had attended the clinic from January 2016-January 2017. The factors that were studied in this research are the demographic characteristics, alcohol consumption, smoking, exposure to heavy metals, obesity, stress and history of surgery.

Results: In 31.6% of couples, the cause of infertility was pure male factor and in 20.4% of them the problem was related to male and female factor both. The most important associated factors for male factor included history of varicocele operation (24%), alcohol consumption (18%) and cigarette smoking (16%).

Conclusions: Male factors play a significant role in up to 50 percent of infertility cases, stressing the need for a logical, stepwise approach to the evaluation of the male partner.


Keywords


Alcohol consumption, Male infertility, Varicocele

Full Text:

PDF

References


De Krister DM. Male infertility. Lancet. 1997;349:787-9.

World Health Organization, the World Health Report Geneva ; WHO;1996.

World Health Organization. Towards more objectivity in diagnosis and management of male infertility. Results of a WHO multicenter study. Int J Androl. 1987;(suppl 7):1-35.

Tenover JS. Androgen administration to aging men. Endocrinol Metab Clin North Am. 1994;23:877-92.

Swartz CM, Young MA, Low serum testosterone and myocardial infarction in Geriatric male inpatients. J Am Geriatric Soc. 1987;35:39-44.

Kunzle R. Mueller MD, Hanggi W, Birkhauser MH, Drescher H, Bersinger NA. Semen quality of male smokers and nonsmokers in infertility couples. Fertility and sterility. 2003;79 (2):287-91.

Saleh RA, Agarwal A, Sharma RK, Nelson Dr, Thomas AJ Jr. Effect of cigarette smoking on levels of seminal oxidative stress in infertile men: a prospective study. Fertil Steril. 2002;78 (3):491-9.

Vine MF, Tse CK, Hu P, Truong KY. Cigarette smoking and semen quality. Fertil Steril. 1996;65(4):835-42.

Boyden TW, Pamenter RW. Effects of ethanol on the male hypothalamic-pituitary gonadal axis. Endocrine Rev. 1983;4(4):389-95.

Witt MA, Lipshultz LI. Varicocele: a progressive or static lesion? Urology. 1993;42(5):541-3.

Filhow DW, Torress MA. Spermatic Cord torsion, reactive oxygen and nitrogenspecies and ischaemia perfusion injury. Mol Aspects Med. 2004;25:199-210.

Baker HW. Reproductive effects of nontesticular illness. Endocrinol Metab Clin North Am. 1998;27(4):831-50.

Turek PJ. Immuno pathology and Infertility. In; Lispshultz LI, Howards SS (Eds). Infertility in the male, 3rd edition. St. Louis, Mo: Mosby year book;1997:305-25.

Meares EM, Stamey TA. Bacteriologic Localization in bacterial prostatitis and Urethritis. Invest Urol. 1968;5:492-503.

Klousia JW, Madden RL, Fucillo DA et al. The aetiology of nonspecific urethritis in active duty marines. J Urol. 1978;120:67-70.

Holmes KK, Handsfield HH, Wang SP, et al. Etiology of nongonocoical urethritis. N Eng Med. 1975; 292; 1995-1205.

Jequier AM. Obstructive azoospeprmia: a study of 102 patients. Clinical Repord Fertil. 1986;3:21-36.

Shindel AW, Nelson CJ, Naughton CK, Ohebshalom M, Mulhall JP. Sexual function and quality of life in the male partner of infertile couple: prevalence and correlates of dysfunction. J Urol. 2008;179(3):1056-9.

Van Balen F, Trimbos-Kemper TC. Factors influencing the well-being of long term infertile couples. J Psychosom Obstet Gynecol. 1994;15(3):157-64.

Cucadia AN. Obesity in male: potential Impact on reproductive function. J Urol. 1996;156:1643-5.

Acharya UR, Acharya S, Mishra M. Lead acetate induced cytotoxicity in male germinal cells of swiss mice. Industrial Health. 2003;41(3):221-4.

HSU PC, Cuo YL. Antioxidant Nutrients and lead toxicity. Toxicology. 2000;180(1):33-44.

Naha N, Chowdhury AR. Inorganic Lead exposure in battery and paint factory; Effect on human sperm structure and Functional activity. J UCEH. 2006;28(2):157-71.

Xu Dx, Shen HM, Zlu QX, Chua L,Wang QN, Chia SE et al. The associations among semen quality, Oxidative DNA damage in human spermatozoa and concentrations of cadmium, lead and selenium in seminal plasma. Mutation Res. 2003;534(1-2):155-63.

Shalet SM. Effects of cancer chemotherapy on gonadal function of patients. Cancer Treatment Rev. 1980;7(3):141-52.

Schlegel PN, Chang Ts, Marshall FF. Antibiotics; potential hazards to male fertility. Fertil Steril. 1991;55(2):235-42.

O’ Marain C, Smethurst P, Dore CJ, Levi AJ. Reversible male infertility due tosulphasalazine: Studies in man and rat. Gut 1984;25(10):1078-84.

Eskiocak S, Gozen As, Taskiran A, Kilic As, Eskiocak M, Gulen S. Effect of Psychological stress on the L-arginine- nitric oxide pathway and semen quality. Brazilian J Med Biol Res. 2006;39(5):581-8.

Agarwal A, Desai NR, Makker K,Varghese A, Mouradi R, Sabanegh E et al. Effects of radiofrequency electromagnetic waves (RF-EMW) from cellular phones on human ejaculated semen; an in vitro pilot study. Fertil Steril. 2008.

Deepinder F, Makker K, Agarwal A. Cell phones and male infertility; dissecting the relationship. Reprod Biomed Online. 2007;15(3):266-70.

Friedman J, Kraus S, Hauptman Y, Schiffy, Seger R. Mechanism of short-term ERK activation by electromagnetic fields at Mobile phone frequencies. Biochem J. 2007;405(3):559-68.