Correlation of serum biomarkers in prediction of gestational diabetes mellitus
Keywords:Gestational Diabetes Mellitus, Serum biomarkers
Background: Adiponectin and Leptin are adipokines produced by adipocytes. TNF-alpha and IL-6 are inflammatory cytokines which increases insulin resistance. Decreased adiponectin, increased leptin, TNF-alpha and IL-6 is associated with risk of Gestational Diabetes Mellitus, characterised by glucose intolerance that begins or first recognised in pregnancy leading to maternal and foetal complications. India has a high prevalence of GDM upto 16.55% by (2hr plasma glucose of more than 140mg/dl). We aimed to evaluate whether ‘First trimester serum biomarkers predict gestational diabetes mellitus’. The objective of the study was to study the serum biomarkers levels in early pregnancy and predict the risk of developing gestational diabetes mellitus. To study the correlation of serum biomarkers levels in gestational diabetes mellitus.
Methods: The study was conducted between October 2014 to March 2016 in healthy pregnant women aged 20-35 yrs attending the antenatal OPD in ESIC Hospital. Study design: Prospective observational study with three study groups 1. NGT, 2. GDM1, 3. GDM2 with two-time points one at first trimester and other second trimester. Sample size: 125 pregnant women. Work plan: Demographics, baseline characteristics and other clinical risk factors of pregnant women in 1st trimester who consented for the study, meeting the inclusion criteria are noted. 75 gm OGCT (oral glucose challenge test) done at two-time points first and second trimester in the study groups will be analysed using the DIPSI criteria with a cut-off value ≥140mg/dl and divided into 3 groups. Serum biomarkers were measured by DRG ELISA method at one-time point in first trimester in all the 3 groups.
Results: The serum levels of adiponectin are comparatively reduced in first trimester GDM1 group. As the difference was not significant with p-value of 0.33 there was no correlation between adiponectin and GDM in our study. Serum leptin is increased in second trimester GDM group but the difference is insignificant with a p value of 0.11 showing no correlation.
Conclusions: Among the cytokines IL-6 also shows an increasing tendency in both GDM1 (5.9±0.57) and GDM2 (6.04±1.04) groups compared to the NGT (5.82±0.38) group. Serum TNFα is increased in GDM1 (17.29±17.14) and NGT (17.03±24.03) compared to GDM2 (13.54±17.29) group.
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