A study in a teritary centre for clinical assessment of pelvic inflammatory disease risk among women attending outpatient department

Sowmya D., Sowjanya D.


Background: Pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) is associated with major medical and economic consequences for women of reproductive age. Identification of the risk factors associated with PID is crucial to efforts for prevention of these consequences. This study is done to evaluate the risk factors for PID in women attending OPD at Gangori hospital.

Methods: This Study is an observational study, Conducted in Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Gangori hospital, SMS Medical College, Jaipur, From January 2015 to June 2015. Risk factors of PID were assessed in 70 women with PID (study group) and then it was compared with 70 controls attending the Women's Clinic at the same institution. Significance of difference in proportion in various variables of PID in both the group was inferred by odd’s ratio and Chi-square test. Logistic regression analysis was used to adjust for confounding variables.

Results: A total of 70 women with PID and an equal number of controls were included. Cases were significantly younger than controls (p<0.001). The women were mainly of lower socioeconomic status. Risk factors identified by bivariate analysis were less than secondary level education, Odds ratio [OR] 5.29; (95% confidence interval: 1.680 to 16.675) P value 0.005. Parity >0, Odds ratio 2.521 (95% CI: 1.140 to 5.577) P value 0.033. Spontaneous abortion >0, Odds ratio 3.11 (95% CI: 1.311 to 7.362) P value 0.015. Lack of a birth control method, Odds ratio 7.18 (95% confidence interval: 3.091 to 16.662) p value<0.001. younger than 18 years at age of first sex, Odds ratio 2.84 (95% CI: 1.404 to 5.753) P value 0.006. Sex during the previous menses Odds ratio 5.39 (95% CI: 2.317 to 12.529) P value <0.001. Vaginal discharge/bleeding, Odds ratio 5.84 (confidence interval 2.717 to 12.578) P value <0.001. With multivariate analysis to control for confounders the risks still identified were sex during the previous menses, parity >0, lack of contraception, vaginal discharge and age at first sex.

Conclusions: Identification of the risk factors associated with PID is most important effort for prevention of the disease and its sequelae. Educating the women, encouraging the use of condoms and other methods of contraception for PID prevention, sexually transmitted disease prevention and also birth control. Another finding is that, it is better to avoid coitus during the menses.


Contraception, PID, Risk factor, Sexually transmitted disease

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