Gestational diabetes and fetal outcome: a study in a tertiary care centre

V. G. Vanamala


Background: Due to urbanization and sedentary lifestyle, dietary changes, and increased obesity of the people, the incidence of GDM is steadily on the rise. It is associated with severe morbidity to the mother and the child. It is therefore imperative that an early diagnosis needs to be done so that appropriate treatment can be given.

Methods: 1654 women who were included in the study were in their 24 – 28 weeks of gestation. A standardized questionnaire was formatted and details regarding the age, weight, body mass index (BMI), parity, previous medical and obstetrics history and familial history of diabetes, tests for glucose levels, complete blood picture, routine urine examination. Oral glucose tolerance test was done for all the patients after fasting overnight.

Results: 87 (5.3%) of them were positive for OGTT and were considered to have Gestational Diabetes mellitus. 67.8% of the patients were in the 25-30 age group. 41.4% were pregnant for the first time and 58.6% were multi gravid. The majority of the patients had a BMI between 26-30. Most of the babies had a birth weight of above 3kgs. Out of them, 39 (44.8%) had a birth weight between 3.1-3.5kgs. <2kgs were seen in 7 (8.0%) patients.

Conclusions: GDM complicates pregnancy and results in higher frequency of adverse effects in the mother and new born. Thereby, early detection can result in prompt treatment and lowering the morbidity of the fetal outcomes.


Fetal outcomes, Gestational diabetes, Oral glucose tolerance test, Pregnant mothers

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