Histopathological examination of emergency obstetric hysterectomy specimens
Keywords:Adherent placenta, Caesarean section, Emergency obstetric hysterectomy, Histopathological examination, Post-partum hemorrhage
Background: Obstetric hysterectomy is done as a lifesaving procedure in very trying circumstances of life threatening severe hemorrhage. The study was undertaken with the aim to evaluate the relative frequency of hysterectomy done for obstetric indication among the hysterectomy specimens and also to assess the histopathological findings in the hysterectomy specimens.
Methods: The study was conducted at a tertiary care center over a period of two and half years. Consecutive specimens of hysterectomy done for obstetrical indication were included. Gross and microscopic findings noted and data analysed. The study was approved by the Institute Ethical Committee.
Results: Of the total hysterectomy specimens received obstetrical hysterectomy comprised only 1.3%(12/915) of all the hysterectomies. Patient’s age ranged from 20-36 years; mean 28.6 years. Parity ranged from 1 to 5; mean 2. More multiparous women 91.7%(11/12) had hysterectomies as compared to primiparous 8.3%(1/12) cases (p value <0.0001). All patients had single pregnancy. All (100%) patients underwent surgery through abdominal route with subtotal hysterectomy with preservation of the bilateral adnexae undertaken in most (11/12; 91.7% cases). About 5(41.6%) cases hysterectomies were performed after previous caesarean section and had abnormal placentation. Histopathological examination revealed adherent placenta in 33.4%(4/12), endometritis in 25%(3/12), rupture in 25%(3/12) and histologically unremarkable in 16.6%(2/12) cases.
Conclusions: Obstetric hysterectomy is an emergency lifesaving procedure done in situations of uncontrolled post-partum hemorrhage. In recent years with more number of caesarean sections the incidence of abnormal placentation has drastically increased, thus making adherent placenta as the most common histopathological finding.
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