Published: 2017-10-28

The study of antiphospholipid antibodies in recurrent pregnancy loss

Sheela H. S., Lakshmidevi M., Babitha Koganti, Shreedhar Venkatesh


Background: Around 15% of clinically recognised pregnancies in women less than 35 years old result in spontaneous miscarriage. However recurrent pregnancy loss (RPL) is encountered in 5% of couples with two or more losses and in around 1–2% of couples with three or more losses. In view of the increasing burden of recurrent pregnancy loss in the society and in view of Anti-phospholipid syndrome being one of the undisputed treatable cause for recurrent pregnancy loss, this study aims to evaluate the significance of the antibody profiles of APS in relation to RPL in OBG dept of VIMS and RC.

Methods: Patients coming to the Obstetric and Gynaecology department of Vydehi Institute of Medical Sciences and Research Centre, Bangalore, from December 1st 2014 to June 30th 2016. A detailed history of patients was taken based on set questionnaires. Detailed general and gynaecological examination findings were taken. Routine blood investigations were sent along with investigations for aPLAs which included: - Lupus Anticoagulant (LA) - Anti Cardiolipin Antibody (ACA) - Anti β2 glycoprotein 1 (Anti-β2GP1Ab). Final results are statistically evaluated.

Results: A total of 56 patients of recurrent miscarriage with two or more prior pregnancy losses were considered. Out of the 56 patients, 23 patients were excluded as per the exclusion criteria and 33 patients were included in the present study. The mean age of the study group was 24.63 years (Range: 20-32 years). Overall, seven patients (21.21%) were seen to have positive antiphospholipid antibody titers amongst the 33 patients, with repeat testing done after 12 weeks to confirm the positivity. Five patients (15.15%) were positive for ACA antibody. Four (12.12%) patients were positive for LA and B2GP1 each. Two patients (6.06%) were positive for both LA and ACA antibodies. Two patients (6.06%) were positive for LA and B2GP1 antibodies and two other (6.06%) patients were positive for ACA and Anti-β2GP1Ab. There was a statistically significant association noticed between ACA positivity and POG at 1st pregnancy loss. However, the overall association of APLA positivity and POG at pregnancy loss was not statistically significant.

Conclusions: There was a significant difference of POG at first pregnancy loss in ACA positive patients as compared to the ACA negative patients. However, when all the APLA positive patients were considered the difference was not statistically significant.


APLA (Anti phospholipid antibody), ACA (Anti cardiolipin antibody), Lupus anticoagulant (LA), POG (Period of gestation)

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