DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.18203/2320-1770.ijrcog20174981

Primary amenorrhea: a clinical review

Rupal Samal, Syed Habeebullah

Abstract


Primary amenorrhoea is a symptom with an extensive list of underlying causes, the majority of which are rare. According to the definition it should present in adolescence, although some conditions are diagnosed in childhood may present with failure of menstruation. Many causes of secondary amenorrhoea can also present with primary amenorrhoea if they arise very early in life. A systematic, compartment based approach will cover the commoner causes of primary amenorrhoea and recommend a pragmatic but cost-effective approach to achieve correct diagnosis. Treatment must be directed at the specific cause but has often wider implications for life long wellbeing like weight management, hormone replacement, sexual health and fertility.


Keywords


Gonadal dysgenesis, Hyperprolactinemia, Mullerian agenesis, Ovarian failure, Primary amenorrhea

Full Text:

PDF

References


Marc AF, Speroff L. Amenorrhoea. Clinical Gynecologic Endocrinology And Infertility. 9th ed. Philadelphia: Wolter Kluwer (Replica Press); 2015:435-93.

Reeja T, Sunil S. Primary amenorrhoea. Available at http://www.medindia.net. Accessed on 3April 2008.

Guerrier D, Mouchel T, Pasquier L, Pellerin I. The Mayer-Rokitansky-Küster-Hauser syndrome (congenital absence of uterus and vagina)-phenotypic manifestations andgenetic approaches. J Negative Results in Bio Med. 2006;5:1.

Temizkan O, Kucur SK, Ağar S, Gözükara İ, Akyol A, Davas İ. Virginity sparing surgery for imperforate hymen. J Turkish-German Gynecol Assoc. 2012;13:278-80.

Opoku BK, Kwarteng RO, Prempeh PA. Transverse vaginal septum with menouria and unilateral renal agenesis-case report. Gynecol. 2015;3:1.

Helmy YA. Cervical agenesis with a functioning uterus: successful surgical treatment by Foley’s catheter stent: a case report. Middle East Fertility Society J. 2017;22(1):67-9.

Gottlieb B, Beitel LK, Trifiro MA. Androgen insensitivity syndrome. 1999 mar 24. In: Pagon RA, Adam MP, Ardinger HH. editors. Gene Reviews®. Seattle (WA): University of Washington, Seattle; 2017:20301602. Available at https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK1429

Presannakumari B. Primary Amenorrhoea. Postgraduate Gynaecology. 1st ed. New Delhi:Jaypee Brothers; 2011:55-80.

Virginia PS, Elizabeth MC. Turner’s Syndrome. N Engl J Med. 2004;351:1227-38.

Leigh B. Gonadal dysgenesis Gynakol Geburtsmed Gynakol Endokrinol. 2009;5(2):82-94.

Li Y, Pan P, Yuan P, Qiu Q and Yang D. Successful live birth in a woman with resistant ovary syndrome following in vitro maturation of oocytes. J Ovarian Research. 2016;9:54.

Krishnan A, Murdock C, Allard J, Cisar M, Reid E, Nieman L, et al. Pseudo-isolated FSH deficiency caused by an inhibin B-secreting granulosa cell tumour: Case report. Human Reprod. 2003:18;502-5.

Catherine HJ, Adam BH. Primary amenorrhoea: investigation and treatment. Obstet Gynecol Reprode Med. 2007;17:7:200-4.