Study of perinatal outcome in twin gestation in rural referral hospital in Maharashtra (India): a cross sectional study
Keywords:Pregnancy outcome, Preterm delivery, Twin pregnancy
Background: Incidence of twin pregnancy is increasing all over the world. It can occur after Assisted Reproductive Technology (ART) or spontaneously and associated with increased maternal and neonatal complications both in the developed and developing countries.
Methods: A descriptive (Cross sectional) study of 64 cases of twins was undertaken between January 2013 till December 2015. Data collection was done prospectively from the patients admitted to the hospital with twin gestation. Inclusion criteria: All pregnancy with twin gestation more than 28 weeks of gestation. Twin pregnancies with both fetuses alive are included. Exclusion criteria is multiple gestation other than twins, cases with congenital malformation and intrauterine death (in one or both twins) were excluded. Data included thorough antenatal history, demographic details and intrapartum and postpartum maternal and neonatal details.
Results: Prevalence of twins in our study was 1.61% (95% CI 1.3-2%). Out of 69 cases of twin pregnancy 64 cases fulfilled the inclusion criteria. History of ovulation induction was associated with 23% cases. Commonest complications observed were preterm labour (56.5%) anaemia (43.4%) and PIH (22.3%). 30.2% cases delivered vaginally whereas 69.8% patients required c. section, malpresentation being commonest indication. No intrapartum still birth was recorded. Early neonatal death was seen in eight cases, causes were prematurity, hyaline membrane disease and neonatal jaundice. Diamnoitic-dichorionic twins were 90% and 3% cases were monoamniotic monochorionic. Zygosity was calculated by Weinbergs formula and 84% cases were dizygotic while 16% cases were monozygotic. No maternal mortality related to twin pregnancy was reported in present study.
Conclusions: All twin pregnancy should be considered as high risk pregnancies and should have mandatory hospital delivery. Early diagnosis, adequate antenatal, intrapartum and postpartum care as well as good NICU back up are the key factors in reducing the complications and improving the perinatal outcome in twin pregnancies.
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