Effect of anemia on pregnancy outcome: a prospective study at tertiary care hospital
Keywords:Anemia, Fetal outcome, IUGR, LSCS, NICU, Space between pregnancies
Background: Iron deficiency anaemia during pregnancy leads to preterm birth, low birth weight and small-for-gestational age babies and increases incidence of postpartum haemorrhage (PPH) and the reason for the incidence of PPH is higher in India compared with the rest of the world. The objective of this study was to find association between maternal anaemia and neonatal complications and to find long term morbidity and mortality of babies born to anaemic mothers.
Methods: It is a prospective study done at Obstetrics and Gynecology Department, Dr. B. R. Ambedkar Medical College and Hospital, Bangalore during October 2009 to October 2011. All subjects were analyzed in full details and haemoglobin estimation done during 1st visit, at 30th week and 36th week of gestation.
Results: Study observed moderate anaemia observed in almost 53.0% cases followed by mild (29.5%) and severe (17.5%) respectively. Risk factors present in 58.0% cases and maternal complications in puerperium observed in 14.5% cases. High incidence of adverse foetal outcome in the form of preterm (20%), IUGR (28%), NICU admission (25.5%) and IUD (3%) seen in present study. Study found association between space between pregnancy, LSCS and fetal outcome with severity of anaemia. Ensuring maternal iron sufficiency during gestation is the most cost-effective method of preventing perinatal iron deficiency and related morbidities.
Conclusions: Iron supplementation during pregnancy in iron deficient mothers improves iron status during pregnancy and postpartum period, thus providing some protection against iron deficiency in the subsequent pregnancy. Proper antenatal care is the basic requirement for prevention, early detection and treatment of anaemia.
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