Correlation of ultrasonography, hysterosalpingography and hystero-laparoscopy findings in cases of infertility


  • Falahunisa S. Shaikh Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Indian Naval Hospital Asvini, Mumbai, Maharashtra, India



Hysterosalpingography, Hysteroscopy, Infertility, Laparoscopy, Ultrasonography


Background: Infertility is a condition which has medical as well as social impact on the state of the couple. Approximately 10-15% couples are infertile. A wide arena of tests is available for the diagnosis of the causes of infertility. The aim of present study is to correlate the findings of ultrasonography, hysterosalpingography and hysterolaparoscopy in infertility.

Methods: It is a prospective study done over 2 years at INHS Asvini hospital, Mumbai. Infertile women underwent ultrasonography, hysterosalpingography and hystero-laparoscopy. Data was assessed using SPSS 17 software.

Results: Of 105 patients, on ultrasonography, 22.9% had Polycystic ovaries (PCO), 2.9% had ovarian cyst, 4.8% had fibroid, 4.8% had endometrioma, 3.8% had adnexal mass, 3.8% had polyp. On hysterosalpingography, 18 (17.1%) had left and 20 (19%) had right tubal block, 11 (10.47%) had B/L tubal block, 6 (5.7%) had septate uterus, 6 (5.7%) had hydrosalpinx. On laparoscopy, 12 (11.4%) had PCO, 4 (3.8%) had ovarian cyst, 12 (11.4%) had fibroid, 7 (6.7%) had endometrioma, 19 (18.1%) had left and 18 (17.1%) had right tubal block, 12 (11.42%) had B/L tubal block, 4 (3.8%) had hydrosalpinx. On hysteroscopy, 7 (6.7%) had septate uterus, no polyp seen.

On laparoscopy, 21 (20%) had endometriosis, 1 (1.9%) had bicornuate uterus.

Conclusions: On comparing the results it was observed that hysterolaparoscopy gives definitive diagnosis and should be considered gold standard, though other modalities of investigation should be considered complimentary and not competing with it, as they are noninvasive.


Berek and Novak’s Gynecology. Infertility and Assisted reproductive technology, 15th ed. 2012;32:1134-64.

Jani RS, Munshi DS, Jani SK, Munshi SP. Application of laparoscopy in current fertility practice. Int J Reprod Contracept Obstet Gynecol. 2014;3:362-5.

Ashok Kumar K, Priyanka Jogi Y, Bharathi A. Diagnostic laparoscopy in the evaluation of female factor infertility. Int J Reprod Contracept Obstet Gynecol. 2017;6:383-7.

Krishna C, Prathima S, Chandraiah S, Anitha GS. Laparoscopy as a diagnostic tool in evaluation of female factors in infertility. Int J Reprod Contracept Obstet Gynecol. 2017;6:864-7.

Gour A, Zawiejska A, Mettler L. Hysteroscopy-Current trends and challenges. J Obstet Gynecol India. 2008;58(1):57-62.

Shetty SK, Shetty H. Diagnostic laparoscopy in infertility - A retrospective study. Int Study Biomed Res. 2013;04:07.

Zhu H, Fu J, Lei H, Song Y, Shen L, Huang W. Evaluation of transvaginal sonography in detecting endometrial polyps and the pregnancy outcome following hysteroscopic polypectomy in infertile women. Experiment Therapeutic Med. 2016;12:1196-1200.

Yantapant A. Comparison of the accuracy of transvaginal sonography and hysteroscopy for the diagnosis of endometrial polyps at Rajavithi Hospital. J Med Assoc Thai. 2012;95Suppl3:S92-S97.

Vitner D, Filmer S, Goldstein I, Khatib N and Weiner Z. A comparison between ultrasonography and hysteroscopy in the diagnosis of uterine pathology. Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol. 2013;171:143-5.

Babacan A, Gun I, Kizilaslan C, Ozden O, Muhcu M, Mungen E, et al. Comparison of transvaginal ultrasonography and hysteroscopy in the diagnosis of uterine pathologies. Int J Clin Exp Med 2014;7(3):764-769

Jain P, Bansal D, Deodhar P. Re-emerging role of HSG Vs laparoscopy for infertility work–up at rural hospital set up. J Res Med Dental Sci. 2015 Oct 1;3(4):287-9.

Lavy, Lev-Sagie A, Holtzer H, Revel A, Hurwitz A. Should laparoscopy be a mandatory component of the infertility evaluation in infertile women with normal hysterosalpingogram or suspected unilateral distal tubal pathology. Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol. 2004;114(1):64-8.

Prasanta K Nayak, Purna C Mahapatra, JJ Mallack, Et al, Role of diagnostic hysteron laparoscopy in infertility: a retrospective study of 300 infertile patients. J Human Reprod Sci. 2013;6(1):32-34.

Gao M. Analysis of 188 Cases of Laparoscopic Diagnosis of Infertility. IJEME. 2013 Feb 29;3(2):1.

Butt ZU, Khan GH. Study of Infertility in Females by Laparoscopy in Remote Area. JRMC. 2009;13(2):89-91.

Parveen S. Study of combined diagnostic laparoscopy and hysteroscopy in infertile patients. J Surg Pak. 2010;15(1).






Original Research Articles