Postpartum contraception: determinants of intention and methods of use among an obstetric cohort in a tertiary hospital in Jos, North Central Nigeria


  • Otobo I. Ujah Department of Obstetrics & Gynaecology, Jos University Teaching Hospital
  • Amaka N. Ocheke Department of Obstetrics & Gynaecology, Jos University Teaching Hospital
  • Josiah T. Mutihir Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Jos University Teaching Hospital
  • Joseph Anejo Okopi Department of Microbiology, University of Jos, Plateau, Nigeria
  • Innocent A. O. Ujah Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Jos University Teaching Hospital, Jos, Nigeria



Contraception, Condoms, Family planning, Implants, Injectables, Long acting reversible contraceptives, Postpartum


Background: Postpartum contraception reduces the risk of unintended and rapid repeat pregnancies. A comprehensive postpartum family planning (PPFP) service can enable women make adequate and informed choices on a preferred contraceptive method, initiating a method as well as encouraging them to use that method for a period depending on their reproductive intentions.

Methods: This study aimed to determine women’s intention regarding uptake of postpartum family planning, the preferred methods and the factors associated with uptake. We conducted a cross-sectional study among women attending antenatal and postnatal clinics at the Jos University Teaching Hospital, Jos, Nigeria using structured questionnaires. Data was analyzed using descriptive statistics and chi square test of comparison.

Results: Four hundred and five women participated in the study. The mean age of the respondents was 28.4+5.3 years. The previous contraceptive usage was 39.8%. A total of 262 (64%) women intend to use a method of postpartum contraception. The most preferred intended postpartum contraceptive was subdermal implant (19.2%) followed by injectables (18.4%) and intrauterine contraceptive device (14.7%). Reasons cited for nonuse of postpartum contraception include spousal refusal, effect on fertility, desire for further child bearing, religious beliefs.

Conclusions: Counselling on postpartum contraception during the antenatal and postnatal period can help women make informed choices among the wide range of available contraception.


Choudhary D, Pal R, Goel N. Awareness and practice patterns of family planning methods. Biomed J. 2015;34:356-8.

Di Giacomo P, Sbarlati A, Bagnasco A, Sasso L. Woman’s contraceptive needs and preferences in the postpartum period: an Italian study. J Clin Nurs. 2013;22:3406-17.

Eliason S, Baiden F, Quansah-Asare G, Graham-Hayfron Y, Bonsu D, Phillips J et al. Factors influencing the intention of women in rural Ghana to adopt postpartum family planning. Reprod Health. 2013;10:1-8.

Adegbola O, Okunowo A. Intended postpartum contraceptive use among pregnant and puerperal women at a university teaching hospital. Arch Gynecol Obstet. 2009;280:987-92.

Cwiak C, Gellasch T, Zieman M. Peripartum contraceptive attitudes and practices. Contraception. 2004;70:383-6.

Zapata LB, Murtaza S, Whiteman MK, Jamieson DJ, Robbins CL, Marchbanks PA, et al. Contraceptive counseling and postpartum contraceptive use. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2015;212:171.e1-8.

World Health Organization. Programming strategies for postpartum family planning. Geneva: WHO; 2013. Available at rategis/en/

Rutaremwa G, Kabagenyi A, Wandera SO, Jhamba T, Akiror E, Nviiri HL. Predictors of modern contraceptive use during the postpartum period among women in Uganda: a population-based cross sectional study. BMC Public Health. 2015;15:262.

Royal College of Obstetricians & Gynaecologists. Postpartum family planning (Best Practice Paper No.1). United Kingdom: RCOG; 2015 Available at

Singh RH, Rogers RG, Leeman L, Borders N, Highfill J, Espey E. Postpartum contraceptive choices among ethnically diverse women in New Mexico. Contraception. 2014;89:512-5.

Idowu A, Deji SA, Ogunlaja O, Olajide SO. Determinants of intention to use post partum family planning among women attending immunization clinic of a tertiary hospital in Nigeria. Am J Public Heal Res. 2015;3:122-7.

Rahmanpour H, Mousavinasab SN, Hosseini SN, Shoghli A. Preferred postpartum contraception methods and their practice among married women in Zanjan, Iran. J Pak Med Assoc. 2010;60:714-8.

Chaovisitsaree S, Noi-um S, Kietpeerakool C. Review of postpartum contraceptive practices at chiang mai university hospital: Implications for improving quality of service. Med Princ Pract. 2012;21:145-9.






Original Research Articles