Correlation of serum thyroid hormones and prolactin levels to female infertility


  • Kaliki Hymavathi Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Narayana Medical College and Hospital, Nellore,
  • Surekha Tadisetti Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Narayana Medical College and Hospital, Nellore,
  • Divya Pusarla Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Narayana Medical College and Hospital, Nellore,
  • Prasuna Pambadi Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Narayana Medical College and Hospital, Nellore,



Infertility, Prolactin, Thyroid


Background: Infertility is defined as inability to conceive after one year of regular intercourse without contraception. Thyroid dysfunction is known to interfere with several aspects of reproduction and pregnancy. Hyperprolactinemia also adversely affects the fertility potential by affecting pulsatile secretion of Gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH) and hence interfering with ovulation. Measurement of these hormones is considered an important component of female infertility work up.

Methods: 100 infertile women are recruited into the study (Study group). 100 healthy fertile women were taken as controls (control group). Thyroid and Prolactin levels estimated in both groups.

Results: Among the study group, 81% were with primary infertility and 19% were with secondary infertility. The mean age of the study group was 25.95±3.79.  26% of infertile women with primary infertility were in overweight and obese groups. 3% with secondary infertility were overweight. 34% of women with primary infertility were with Thyroid problems.18% of the hypothyroids were in the overweight and obese groups. Prevalence of hyperprolactinemia was 34% in study group with mean Prolactin levels of 21.84±15.65. 15% of women with hyperprolactinemia were overweight. 62.5% of hyperprolactinemics with associated hypothyroidism the rest with hyperthyroidism. These values when compared with controls showed significant p value 0.012.

Conclusions: Identifying and treating hypothyroidism and hyperprolactinemia at an early stage can have potentially great preventive value in the screening of all infertile females hence should be included in the primary workup of the infertility female.


Sharma P, Prasad S. Female infertility and its correlation with serum Prolactin and TSH Concentration-An unmatched case control study. Journal of pharmaceutical and biomedical sciences. J Pharm Biomed Sci. 2013;30(30):902-7.

Southam AL. What to do the normal infertile couple. Fertile Sterile. 1960;11;543.

Guttmacher F. Factors affecting normal expectancy of conception. J American Medical Association. 1956;161:856.

Gill HS, Bedi GK. Correlation of TSH and Prolactin Levels in Patients with Primary Infertility Scholars Journal of Applied Medical Sciences Sch. J App Med Sci. 2014;2(4B):1267-19.

Hendershot GE, Mosher WD, Pratt WF. Infertility and age: An unresolved issue. Fam Plann Perspect. 1982;14:287.

Mishra R, Baveja R, Gupta V. Prolactin levels in infertility with menstrual irregularities. J Obetet Gynecol India 2002; 52:40 -3.

Sudha G, Reddy KSN. Causes of female infertility: A crosssectional study, International journal of latest research in science and technology. 2013;2(6):119-23, 2278-5299.

Shamali J, Seema V. Hyperprolactinemia and Its Comparison with Hypothyroidism in Infertile Women International Journal of Recent Trends in Science And Technology. 2013;8(2):106-8.

Avasthi K, Kaur J, Gupta S. Hyperprolactinema and its correlation with hypothyroidism in infertile women. J Obstet Gynecol India. 2016;56(1):68-71.

Faria DEP, Grieco SC. The effects of infertility on the spouses' relationship. Revista da Escola de Enfermagem da USP. 2012;46(4):794-801.

Fupare S, Jambhulkar RK. Correlation of thyroid hormones with infertility in reproductive age group women: Indian Journal of Basic and Applied Medical Research. 2015;4(4):488-95.

Nemade ST, Momin AA, Naik PS. The Association of Thyroid Profile with Primary Infertility in Females. International Journal of Health Sciences and Research. 2015.

Tirumalasetty S. Clinical study of thyrotropin and prolactin levels in women with primary infertility, IJPRBS. 2013;2(3):107-13.

Hivre MD, Bhale DV. Study of Serum TSH and Prolactin Levels in Patients of Female Infertility; International Journal of Recent Trends in Science and Technology. 2013;9(1):144-5.

Nupur H, Andaleeb F, Premlata M. Correlation of Prolactin and Thyroid Hormone Levels in Infertile Women. Sch Acad J Biosci. 2015;3(1A):1-2.

Nissreen FA, Hassan EE. Assessment of Serum Levels of Prolactin in Sudanese female patients with Primary Hypothyroidism- Khartoum State. Journal of Biomedical and Pharmaceutical Sciences. 2014;4(32):1-4.

Shamsuddin M. Study of thyoid hormone levels and pituitary thyroid axis in chronic renal failure; Unique Journal of Medical and Dental Sciences. 2014;02(04):53-7.

Bolumar F, Olsen J. European Body Mass Index and Delayed Conception: A European Multicenter Study Of Infertility and Subfecundity. American journal of Epidemiology. 2000;151:11.

Ernst B, Thurnheer M, Schultes B. Basal serum prolactin levels in obesity-unrelated to parameters of the metabolic syndrome and unchanged after massive weight loss. Obes Surg. 2009;19(8):1159-62.

Grimaldi F, Mazzolini A, Paterniti BR, Torossi I, Proto G, Bertolissi F. Changes in secretion of prolactin in obesity. Minerva Endocrinol. 1990;15(4):267-71.






Original Research Articles